# Development of an Elevation–Fresnel Linked Mini-Heliostat Array

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Theoretical Model

`SolTrace`software [21]. A program in

`C`was developed for the calculation of the solar $\widehat{\mathbf{s}}$ and normal vectors ${\widehat{\mathbf{n}}}_{j}$ of the mini-heliostats, used as inputs for

`SolTrace`.

#### 2.2. Experimental Methods

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Theoretical Analysis

#### 3.2. Prototype

#### 3.3. Experimental Results and Comparison

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Global reference system showing the solar vector $\widehat{\mathbf{s}}$, the mirror normal $\widehat{\mathbf{n}}$, and the target vector $\widehat{\mathbf{t}}$ (

**a**). The ${\xi}_{0}$ and ${\psi}_{0}$ rotations of the central facet for the heliostat array tracking (

**b**).

**Figure 4.**Impact points of the central reflected ray of each facet, for the four mini-heliostats ${f}_{1}$, ${f}_{2}$, ${f}_{3}$ and ${f}_{4}$ of the H4 array, on the receiver, for 21 March. The positions are (

**a**) $0.75h$ (26.25 m) and (

**b**) $4h$ (140 m).

**Figure 5.**Central rays’ impact points of each facet on the target for an H4 array, and for the 21st day of each month from June to December. The array is located at 0.75h (26.25 m).

**Figure 6.**Daily standard deviation of facet impact points in x (

**a**) and z (

**b**), for H4 arrays located at $0.75h$ (26.25 m), $2h$ (70 m), and $4h$ (140 m).

**Figure 7.**Daily standard deviations of facet impact points for the heliostat arrays H2, H4, H8, H16, H24, and H32 throughout the year, along the x (

**a**) and z (

**b**) axes. The arrays are located at $2h$ (70 m).

**Figure 8.**Concentrated solar flux distribution on the receiver ($6\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}\times 6\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}$) for an H8 array located at $0.75h$ (26.25 m). Solar noon the 21st of June (

**a**) and December (

**b**).

**Figure 9.**Concentrated solar flux distribution on the receiver ($6\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}\times 6\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}$) for an H32 array, on 21 June at 8:30 (

**a**) and 12:30 (

**b**), solar time, for a distance of 2h (70 m).

**Figure 10.**Variation throughout the year of the daily standard deviations of the concentrated radiative flux distribution ${\overline{S}}_{x}$ and ${\overline{S}}_{z}$ along the x (

**a**) and z (

**b**) axes, respectively, for arrays with different number of facets, placed at a distance of 2h (70 m).

**Figure 11.**Behavior of the daily standard deviations $\overline{S}$ (

**a**) and the peak flux (

**b**) for H8 arrays with and without concentrating mirrors. Location is at 37 m from the tower.

**Figure 12.**Energy contributed per mirror throughout the year for different arrays. Distance of $0.75h$ (26.25 m).

**Figure 15.**Photographs of the heliostat array prototype (

**a**), and the concentrated solar flux distribution reflected on the target (

**b**).

**Figure 17.**Experimental radiative flux distribution (

**a**) and ray tracing simulation with SolTrace (

**b**) for the heliostat array prototype. The isolines $0.500$, $1.00$, $3.00$, and $5.00$ correspond to irradiance in $\mathrm{kW}/{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$.

**Figure 18.**Irradiance distributions along the x (

**a**) and z (

**b**) directions through the distribution centroids.

Parameter | Value | Units |
---|---|---|

Number of facets | 8 | – |

Facet length | 1.00 | m |

Facet width | 0.60 | m |

Mirror material | Back silvered glass | – |

Mirror thickness | 6 | mm |

Structure material | ASTM A36 Steel | – |

Spacing between facets | 0.02 | m |

Length of the elevation frame | 5.062 | m |

Width of the elevation frame | 1.13 | m |

Height of the array | 1.6 | m |

Type of actuator | Linear jack /stepper motor | – |

Elevation range | [5, 80] | deg |

Facet rotation range | [−53.71, 53.71] | deg |

Facet | ${\mathit{f}}_{8}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{6}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{4}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{2}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{1}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{3}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{5}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{7}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Canting angle (deg) | 1.884 | 1.346 | 0.808 | 0.269 | −0.269 | −0.808 | −1.346 | −1.884 |

Slope error (mrad) | 1.36 | 0.75 | 1.41 | 1.68 | 0.87 | 1.26 | 1.32 | 0.77 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Moreno-Cruz, I.; Castro, J.C.; Álvarez-Brito, O.; Mota-Nava, H.B.; Ramírez-Zúñiga, G.; Quiñones-Aguilar, J.J.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.
Development of an Elevation–Fresnel Linked Mini-Heliostat Array. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 4012.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154012

**AMA Style**

Moreno-Cruz I, Castro JC, Álvarez-Brito O, Mota-Nava HB, Ramírez-Zúñiga G, Quiñones-Aguilar JJ, Arancibia-Bulnes CA.
Development of an Elevation–Fresnel Linked Mini-Heliostat Array. *Energies*. 2020; 13(15):4012.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154012

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Moreno-Cruz, Isaías, Juan Carlos Castro, Omar Álvarez-Brito, Hilda B. Mota-Nava, Guillermo Ramírez-Zúñiga, José J. Quiñones-Aguilar, and Camilo A. Arancibia-Bulnes.
2020. "Development of an Elevation–Fresnel Linked Mini-Heliostat Array" *Energies* 13, no. 15: 4012.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154012