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Open AccessArticle

A New Wind Turbine CFD Modeling Method Based on a Porous Disk Approach for Practical Wind Farm Design

1
Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
2
Mechanical Engineering R&D Department, Energy Systems Research and Development Center Toshiba Energy Systems & Solutions Corporation, 2-4 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
3
Technology Planning & Quality Control Department, Grid Aggregation Division Toshiba Energy Systems & Solutions Corporation, 72-34 Horikawa-cho, Saiwai-ku Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 212-8585, Japan
4
Deputy Manager Engineering And Technology Development Department Wind Power Business Unit, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 7-89 Nanko-Kita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka, 559-8559, Japan
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Technical Research Institute, Business Planning & Technology Development Headquarters, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka, 551-0022, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123197
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
In this study, the new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) porous disk (PD) wake model was proposed in order to accurately predict the time-averaged wind speed deficits in the wind turbine wake region formed on the downstream side by the 2-MW wind turbine operating at a wind speed of 10 m/s. We use the concept of forest canopy model as a new CFD PD wake model, which has many research results in the meteorological field. In the forest canopy model, an aerodynamic resistance is added as an external force term to all governing equations (Navier–Stokes equations) in the streamwise, spanwise, and vertical directions. Therefore, like the forest model, the aerodynamic resistance is added to the governing equations in the three directions as an external force term in the CFD PD wake model. In addition, we have positioned the newly proposed the LES using the CFD PD wake model approach as an intermediate method between the engineering wake model (empirical/analytical wake model) and the LES combined with actuator disk (AD) or actuator line (AL) models. The newly proposed model is intended for use in large-scale offshore wind farms (WFs) consisting of multiple wind turbines. In order to verify the validity of the new method, the optimal model parameter CRC was estimated by comparison with the time-averaged wind speed database in the wind turbine wake region with fully resolved geometries, combined with unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, implemented using the ANSYS(R) CFX(R) software. Here, product names (mentioned herein) may be trademarks of their respective companies. As a result, in the range from x = 5D of the near wake region to x = 10D of the far wake region, by selecting model parameter CRC, it was clarified that it is possible to accurately evaluate the time-averaged wind speed deficits at those separation distances. We also examined the effect of the spatial grid resolution using the CFD PD wake model that is proposed in the present study, clarifying that the spatial grid resolution has little effect on the simulation results shown here. View Full-Text
Keywords: mutual interference of wind turbine wakes; large-eddy simulation (LES); CFD porous disk (PD) wake model mutual interference of wind turbine wakes; large-eddy simulation (LES); CFD porous disk (PD) wake model
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Uchida, T.; Taniyama, Y.; Fukatani, Y.; Nakano, M.; Bai, Z.; Yoshida, T.; Inui, M. A New Wind Turbine CFD Modeling Method Based on a Porous Disk Approach for Practical Wind Farm Design. Energies 2020, 13, 3197.

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