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Pipe Sizing for Novel Heat Distribution Technology

School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE 30118 Halmstad, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1276;
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
PDF [4115 KB, uploaded 9 April 2019]


This paper assesses pipe sizing aspects for previously proposed, novel, low heat distribution technology with three pipes. Assessment issues include heat loss, pressure loss, and pipe sizing for different typical pipe configurations. This assessment has been provided by the analysis of a case area with single-family houses. Concerning heat loss, the proposed three-pipe solutions have the same magnitude of heat loss as conventional twin pipes, since lower return temperatures compensate for the larger heat loss area from the third pipe. Regarding pressure loss, the main restriction on the size of the third pipe is limited to the pressure loss in the third pipe. Thermostatic valves to manage the flow rate of the third pipe are advocated, since alternative small pumps have not been found to be commercially available. The pipe sizing recommendation is that the third pipe for recirculation purposes can be two to three standard pipe sizes smaller than the corresponding supply and return pipe, if no prosumer is connected in the heat distribution network. View Full-Text
Keywords: low temperature; district heating; pressure gradients; three-pipe system; 4GDH-3P low temperature; district heating; pressure gradients; three-pipe system; 4GDH-3P

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Averfalk, H.; Ottermo, F.; Werner, S. Pipe Sizing for Novel Heat Distribution Technology. Energies 2019, 12, 1276.

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