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Open AccessArticle

Production of Oxygenated Fuel Additives from Residual Glycerine Using Biocatalysts Obtained from Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Jatropha curcas L. Roots

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor García González, 1, 41012 Seville, Spain
2
Departamento de Ingeniería Energética. E.T.S. de Ingeniería, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain
3
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Science, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(4), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040740
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bio-Energy)
This work aims to shed light on the use of two biochars, obtained from the pyrolysis at 550 °C of heavy-metal-contaminated Jatropha curcas L. roots, as heterogeneous catalysts for glycerol esterification using residual glycerine. To do this, glycerine from biodiesel production was purified. In a first step, H3PO4 or H2SO4 was used to remove non-glycerol organic matter. The glycerol-rich phase was then extracted with ethanol or propanol, which increased the glycerol content from 43.2% to up to 100%. Subsequently, the esterification of both purified glycerine and commercial USP glycerine was assayed with acetic acid (AA) or with acetic anhydride (AH) at 9:1 molar ratio to glycerol using Amberlyst-15 as catalyst. Different reaction times (from 1.5 to 3 h) and temperatures (100–115 °C when using AA and 80–135 °C when using AH) were assessed. Results revealed that the most suitable conditions were 80 °C and 1.5 h reaction time using AH, achieving 100% yield and selectivity towards triacetylglycerol (TAG) almost with both glycerines. Finally, the performance and reuse of the two heterogeneous biocatalysts was assessed. Under these conditions, one of the biocatalysts also achieved 100% TAG yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocatalyst; biodiesel; esterification; glycerol; triacetylglycerol biocatalyst; biodiesel; esterification; glycerol; triacetylglycerol
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Martín, J.F.; Alés-Álvarez, F.J.; Torres-García, M.; Feng, C.-H.; Álvarez-Mateos, P. Production of Oxygenated Fuel Additives from Residual Glycerine Using Biocatalysts Obtained from Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Jatropha curcas L. Roots. Energies 2019, 12, 740.

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