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A Combined Study of TEM-EDS/XPS and Molecular Modeling on the Aging of THPP, ZPP, and BKNO3 Explosive Charges in PMDs under Accelerated Aging Conditions
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Energies 2019, 12(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020209

Thermodynamic Analysis on the Aging of THPP, ZPP and BKNO3 Explosive Charges in PMDs

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48547, Korea
2
Defence R&D center, Hanwha Corporation, Daejeon 34068, Korea
3
Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon 34183, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

The aging of explosive charges in pyrotechnic mechanical devices (PMDs) significantly affects the reliability of their performance. Aging decreases the explosive power of explosive charges via pre-oxidation by external sources of oxygen. In this study, the flame temperature was calculated based on the amount of added oxygen source, and the effect of aging was quantified in terms of the performance of explosive charges. Three primary explosive charges (THPP, ZPP, and BKNO3) were selected, and the explosion was assumed to have occurred in a closed adiabatic system. The flame temperature decreased with increasing oxygen addition, suggesting that the aging decreased the pressure exerted by the PMDs. The explosive power decreased in the following order: ZPP >> THPP > BKNO3 (4100 >> 3260 > 3050 K), and it was decreased by aging as follows: ZPP >> BKNO3 > THPP (802 >> 219 > 95 K per mole of added water). As a result, ZPP is appropriate for the generation of the huge thrust of PMDs despite its increased susceptibility to aging, while THPP is superior for reliable PMD performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aging; Pyrotechnic Mechanical Devices (PMDs); Flame Temperature; Thermodynamic Analysis; Titanium Hydride Potassium Perchlorate (THPP); Zirconium Potassium Perchlorate (ZPP); Boron Potassium Nitrate (BKNO3) Aging; Pyrotechnic Mechanical Devices (PMDs); Flame Temperature; Thermodynamic Analysis; Titanium Hydride Potassium Perchlorate (THPP); Zirconium Potassium Perchlorate (ZPP); Boron Potassium Nitrate (BKNO3)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, K.M.; Choi, S.I.; Eom, K.H.; Ahn, G.H.; Paik, J.G.; Ryu, B.T.; Kim, Y.H.; Won, Y.S. Thermodynamic Analysis on the Aging of THPP, ZPP and BKNO3 Explosive Charges in PMDs. Energies 2019, 12, 209.

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