With ever-growing interconnections of various kinds of energy sources, the coupling between a power distribution system (PDS) and a district heating system (DHS) has been progressively intensified. Thus, it is becoming more and more important to take the PDS and the DHS as a whole in energy flow analysis. Given this background, a steady state model of DHS is first presented with hydraulic and thermal sub-models included. Structurally, the presented DHS model is composed of three major parts, i.e., the straight pipe, four kinds of local pipes, and the radiator. The impacts of pipeline parameters and the environment temperature on heat losses and pressure losses are then examined. The term “heat-power flow” is next defined, and the optimal heat-power flow (OHPF) model formulated as a quadratic planning problem, in which the objective is to minimize energy losses, including the heat losses and active power losses, and both the operational constraints of PDS and DHS are respected. The developed OHPF model is solved by the well-established IPOPT (Interior Point OPTimizer) commercial solver, which is based on the YALMIP/MATLAB toolbox. Finally, two sample systems are served for demonstrating the characteristics of the proposed models.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited