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Optimal Load-Tracking Operation of Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cells through Set Point Scheduling and Combined L1-MPC Control

1
Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(4), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040801
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation 2018)
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Abstract

An optimal load-tracking operation strategy for a grid-connected tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is studied based on the steady-state analysis of the system thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Control of the SOFC is achieved by a two-level hierarchical control system. In the upper level, optimal setpoints of output voltage and the current corresponding to unit load demand is obtained through a nonlinear optimization by minimizing the SOFC’s internal power waste. In the lower level, a combined L1-MPC control strategy is designed to achieve fast set point tracking under system nonlinearities, while maintaining a constant fuel utilization factor. To prevent fuel starvation during the transient state resulting from the output power surging, a fuel flow constraint is imposed on the MPC with direct electron balance calculation. The proposed control schemes are testified on the grid-connected SOFC model. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); grid-connected fuel cell; power control; set point scheduling; L1 adaptive control; Model Predictive Control (MPC) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); grid-connected fuel cell; power control; set point scheduling; L1 adaptive control; Model Predictive Control (MPC)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, S.; Sun, L.; Shen, J.; Pan, L.; Lee, K.Y. Optimal Load-Tracking Operation of Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cells through Set Point Scheduling and Combined L1-MPC Control. Energies 2018, 11, 801.

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