Next Article in Journal
Global Solar Radiation Prediction Using Hybrid Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine Model
Previous Article in Journal
Research into an Efficient Energy Equalizer for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of the Air Oxygen Enrichment Effects on Combustion and Emissions of Natural Gas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engines at Various Loads and Pilot Fuel Quantities
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3413; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123413

Exhaust Emissions and Physicochemical Properties of n-Butanol/Diesel Blends with 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate (EHN) or Hydrotreated Used Cooking Oil (HUCO) as Cetane Improvers

Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4501 KB, uploaded 10 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Currently, n-butanol is a promising oxygenate (potentially of renewable origin) to be used in blends with conventional diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. However, its poor ignition quality can drastically deteriorate the cetane number (CN) of the blend. In the present work, the effects of adding n-butanol to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) were assessed, aiming at simultaneously eliminating its negative effect on the blend’s ignition quality. Concentrations of 10% and 20% (v/v) n-butanol in ULSD fuel were studied. As cetane-improving agents, a widely used cetane improver (2-ethylhexyl nitrate—EHN) and a high-CN, bio-derived paraffinic diesel (hydrotreated used cooking oil—HUCO) were used. The initial investigation of ignition quality improvement with the addition of either EHN or HUCO produced four “ignition quality response curves” that served as mixing guides in order to create four blends of identical ignition quality as the baseline ULSD fuel. These four blends (10% and 20% v/v n-butanol in ULSD fuel, with the addition of either EHN or HUCO, at the cost of ULSD volume share only) were evaluated comparatively to the baseline ULSD fuel and a 10% (v/v) n-butanol/90% ULSD blend with regards to their physicochemical properties and the effect on the operation and exhaust emissions of a stationary diesel engine. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-butanol; 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN); hydrotreated used cooking oil (HUCO); ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD); exhaust emissions n-butanol; 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN); hydrotreated used cooking oil (HUCO); ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD); exhaust emissions
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zahos-Siagos, I.; Karathanassis, V.; Karonis, D. Exhaust Emissions and Physicochemical Properties of n-Butanol/Diesel Blends with 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate (EHN) or Hydrotreated Used Cooking Oil (HUCO) as Cetane Improvers. Energies 2018, 11, 3413.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top