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Energies 2018, 11(10), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102635

Power Quality Performance of Fast-Charging under Extreme Temperature Conditions

European Commission, Joint Research Centre Directorate C Energy, Transport and Climate, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten, The Netherlands
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Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract

Exposing electric vehicles (EV) to extreme temperatures limits its performance and charging. For the foreseen adoption of EVs, it is not only important to study the technology behind it, but also the environment it will be inserted into. In Europe, temperatures ranging from −30 °C to +40 °C are frequently observed and the impacts on batteries are well-known. However, the impact on the grid due to the performance of fast-chargers, under such conditions, also requires analysis, as it impacts both on the infrastructure’s dimensioning and design. In this study, six different fast-chargers were analysed while charging a full battery EV, under four temperature levels (−25 °C, −15 °C, +20 °C, and +40 °C). The current total harmonic distortion, power factor, standby power, and unbalance were registered. Results show that the current total harmonic distortion (THDI) tended to increase at lower temperatures. The standby consumption showed no trend, with results ranging from 210 VA to 1650 VA. Three out of six chargers lost interoperability at −25 °C. Such non-linear loads, present high harmonic distortion, and, hence, low power factor. The temperature at which the vehicle’s battery charges is crucial to the current it withdraws, thereby, influencing the charger’s performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; harmonics; power quality; interoperability; fast-chargers electric vehicles; harmonics; power quality; interoperability; fast-chargers
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Lucas, A.; Trentadue, G.; Scholz, H.; Otura, M. Power Quality Performance of Fast-Charging under Extreme Temperature Conditions. Energies 2018, 11, 2635.

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