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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2174;

Comparison of Lithium-Ion Anode Materials Using an Experimentally Verified Physics-Based Electrochemical Model

Independent Researcher, Novi, MI 48377, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240, China
National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles and Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4140 KB, uploaded 19 December 2017]   |  


Researchers are in search of parameters inside Li-ion batteries that can be utilized to control their external behavior. Physics-based electrochemical model could bridge the gap between Li+ transportation and distribution inside battery and battery performance outside. In this paper, two commercially available Li-ion anode materials: graphite and Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO) were selected and a physics-based electrochemical model was developed based on half-cell assembly and testing. It is found that LTO has a smaller diffusion coefficient (Ds) than graphite, which causes a larger overpotential, leading to a smaller capacity utilization and, correspondingly, a shorter duration of constant current charge or discharge. However, in large current applications, LTO performs better than graphite because its effective particle radius decreases with increasing current, leading to enhanced diffusion. In addition, LTO has a higher activation overpotential in its side reactions; its degradation rate is expected to be much smaller than graphite, indicating a longer life span. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion battery; anode materials; half-cell modeling Li-ion battery; anode materials; half-cell modeling

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Fu, R.; Zhou, X.; Fan, H.; Blaisdell, D.; Jagadale, A.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, R. Comparison of Lithium-Ion Anode Materials Using an Experimentally Verified Physics-Based Electrochemical Model. Energies 2017, 10, 2174.

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