Next Article in Journal
Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Removal Efficiency for Ventilation Variants in Passenger Cars
Previous Article in Journal
Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1707;

The Battle between Battery and Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicles: A BWM Approach

Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
PDF [257 KB, uploaded 26 October 2017]


The transition to a more sustainable personal transportation sector requires the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. However, a dominant design has not yet emerged and a standards battle is being fought between battery and hydrogen fuel cell powered electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to analyze which factors are most likely to influence the outcome of this battle, thereby reducing the uncertainty in the industry regarding investment decisions in either of these technologies. We examine the relevant factors for standard dominance and apply a multi-criteria decision-making method, best worst method, to determine the relative importance of these factors. The results indicate that the key factors include technological superiority, compatibility, and brand reputation and credibility. Our findings show that battery powered electric vehicles have a greater chance of winning the standards battle. This study contributes to theory by providing further empirical evidence that the outcome of standards battles can be explained and predicted by applying factors for standard success. We conclude that technology dominance in the automotive industry is mostly driven by technological characteristics and characteristics of the format supporter. View Full-Text
Keywords: automotive; best worst method; BWM; standards battles; standards automotive; best worst method; BWM; standards battles; standards
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Van de Kaa, G.; Scholten, D.; Rezaei, J.; Milchram, C. The Battle between Battery and Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicles: A BWM Approach. Energies 2017, 10, 1707.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top