From Science to Policy: How to Support Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia
- The first principle defines the purpose of social enterprises’ existence. According to this principle, their business goal is to overcome poverty or to address problems such as education, nutrition, healthcare, environment and enable technology access to the low-income population and not only for the sake of profit making.
- The second principle refers to financial and economic sustainability. Social entrepreneurs look for sources of finance that are socially responsible.
- The third principle manages return on investments. Social entrepreneur investors are not encouraged to run for profit at the expense of achieving wider social benefits.
- The fourth principle is related to the amount earned over and above the investment that should be reinvested back in order to increase the scope of operations and improve them. This expansion aims to attract more people or improve the quality of services.
- The fifth principle covers social enterprises that should be responsible for environmental welfare. They should play a major role in the improvement of environment either directly or indirectly. This means that their operations ensure that they do not harm the environment.
- The sixth principle means that the company’s employees will receive fair compensation, which is in line with industry standards. The workers receive better working conditions.
- The seventh principle represents the attitude that the social entrepreneur does not aim at maximizing profit. Therefore, social work is only managed by those who passionately contribute both to society and the environment. This means that business takes place in an environment of joy and not of stress.
2. Strategic Framework for Social Entrepreneurship at the EU Level
- Those for whom the social or societal objective of the common good is the reason for commercial activity, often in the form of a high level of social innovation;
- Those whose profits are mainly reinvested to achieve this social objective;
- Those where the method of organization or the ownership system reflect the enterprise’s mission, using democratic or participatory principles or focusing on social justice.
2.1. The Strategic Framework for Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia
- Individual level (sample of subjects for Croatia: 2000);
- Entrepreneurial environment through phases of entrepreneurial behaviour (recognition of business opportunities, intentions to start and grow business ventures and exit from entrepreneurial activity);
- Through characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour (competencies, fear of failure and social status) (CEPOR—SMEs and Entrepreneurship Policy Center 2020).
2.2. The Risk Management in Entrepreneurship
3. Materials and Methods
4.1. Results on Legal Forms of Action of Social Enterprises in Croatia
- Companies: a limited liability company and a joint stock company;
- Cooperatives. Article 1 of the Cooperatives Act (2011) defines the concept of a cooperative as a voluntary, open, autonomous and independent society governed by its members, who through its work and other activities or the use of its services, on the basis of collectiveness and mutual assistance, achieve, improve and protect their individual and common economic, social, educational, cultural and other needs and interests and achieve the objectives the cooperative is founded for. Article 5 of the Cooperatives Act emphasizes that the state and local and regional self-governments encourage the development of cooperatives through economic and social policy measures and other measures for improving the development of cooperatives and cooperative systems. The Act determines the types of cooperatives that have certain particularities, e.g., Agricultural cooperative (plant production, livestock, forestry or hunting or related services); Workers cooperative in which at least 2/3 of its members have an employment contract with the cooperative; Fisheries cooperative (catching, farming and processing of fishery products, including their placement on the market); Housing cooperative—established to meet the housing needs of its members; Construction cooperative—conducts construction activities; Social cooperative—performs activities that help meet the basic needs of socially endangered, powerless and other persons, who either by themselves or with the assistance of family members still cannot meet them due to unfavourable personal, economic, social and other circumstances; Consumer cooperative—established for the purpose of joint purchase or procurement of goods or services; Craftsmen cooperative—is a cooperative in which at least half of its members perform activities in accordance with the Crafts Act; Secondary cooperative—is a cooperative established by two or more cooperatives with a view towards joint market performance, increasing competitiveness and achieving other common objectives (Perić 2019). It is difficult to determine the total number of cooperatives in Croatia today. According to the Register of Business Entities kept by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, their number in 2017 was 4482, while the number of active cooperatives according to the Register itself was 973. According to the Financial Agency, in 2017 the number of cooperatives was 904, which was calculated according to the submitted financial reports. Although the number of cooperatives is relatively small, it is still growing, primarily due to the support provided by the Croatian Veterans’ Ministry for the establishment of veterans’ cooperatives. Cooperatives are not equally distributed across the counties. Most of them are located in Split-Dalmatia County (129), Osijek-Baranja County (90) and in the City of Zagreb (84), i.e., in the counties with the largest share of Croatian veterans. The lowest number of cooperatives is located in the Međimurje and Požega-Slavonia Counties (11 each). These counties, along with Lika-Senj County, have the smallest share of the total number of Croatian veterans. In Split-Dalmatia County, there is a relatively large share of Croatian veterans who can apply for the use of support from the Ministry of Croatian Veterans. Moreover, the Southern Alliance of Dalmatia, established as early as in the 19th century, is active and has contributed to the largest number of cooperatives in that county (Broz and Švaljek 2019). Agricultural cooperatives are the most important in Croatia. Agricultural cooperatives participate in the total number of cooperatives in Croatia with a share of 41.7%, followed by the processing industry, which employs 16.6% of all cooperatives in Croatia, and the services sector covering 16.2% of all cooperatives, while the smallest number of cooperatives are located in fisheries and tourism;
- Associations. According to the Associations Act (Associations Act 2014), associations are defined as any form of a free and voluntary association of a number of natural or legal persons who, in order to protect their achievements or advocate the protection of human rights and freedoms, environmental and nature protection and sustainable development as well as humanitarian, social, cultural, educational, scientific, sports, health, technical, information, vocational or other beliefs and objectives that are not contrary to the Constitution and the law, without the intention of obtaining profit or other economically measurable benefits, are subject to the rules and organization. (Vojvodić and Šimić-Banović 2019) Example: Association DEŠA Dubrovnik—Regional Centre for Community Building and Civil Society Development;
- Foundations and endowments. The foundations are legal entities. According to the Foundations Act (Foundations Act 1995), a foundation is an asset intended to permanently serve, on its own or through revenues acquired by it, the achievement of some generally useful or charitable purpose, while the endowment is an asset intended to serve, within a certain period of time, the achievement of some generally beneficial or charitable purpose. The foundations generally have useful purpose to improve cultural, educational, scientific, spiritual, moral, sports, health, ecological or any other social activity; purpose; or overall material state of society. Charities fulfil such a purpose by providing support to persons in need of assistance. When establishing a foundation, its founders permanently dedicate certain assets to the foundation’s purpose (basic assets). Basic assets must not be reduced but are invested in order to be increased, while annual income is used for generally useful and charitable purposes. Example: Adris group—Adris Foundation;
- Institutions. An institution is a legal entity established for the permanent pursuit of activities of education, science, culture, information, sport, physical culture, technical culture, childcare, health care, social welfare, disability care and other activities if they are not performed for profit-making purposes (Institution Act 2019). In Croatia, 25 public scientific institutes can be considered as examples of social entrepreneurs. Using the public infrastructure, the institutes acquire additional funds by offering their services on the open market, which in turn are fully invested in raising the level of scientific excellence and improving the conditions of their work and development. Such a method of functioning is recognized in international practice as a form of social entrepreneurship.
- Protective and integrative workshops. According to the Ordinance on Protective and Integrative Workshops for Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Ministry of Labour and Pension System 2014), an integrative workshop is an institution or company employing persons with disabilities based on the findings and opinions of the Centre for Professional Rehabilitation, which stipulates that due to their disability they can achieve between 30% and 70% of the expected labour efficiency (Hrg Matušin 2019). The integrative workshop must have at least 40% of persons with disabilities employed in relation to the total number of persons employed. Persons with disabilities employed in the integration workshop must be provided with professional support, supervision and guidance of professional workers engaged in the integration workshop. Therefore, professional workers and trainers work in the integrative workshops. A protective workshop is an institution or company providing protective posts for persons with disabilities proved to be employable only in protective posts by the findings and opinions of the Centre for Professional, and who can achieve between 30% and 70% of the expected labour efficiency due to their disability. According to the Ordinance on protective and integrative workshops (Ministry of Labour and Pension System 2014) for employment of persons with disabilities, the protective workshop must have at least five employees and at least 51% of the total number of employees must be persons with disabilities employed in protective posts. The protective workshop must meet personnel, technical and organizational requirements set out in Ordinance (Ministry of Labour and Pension System 2014) and have a business plan with financial indicators prepared.
4.2. Results on Possible Threats and Opportunities for Enabling the Improvement of Stimulating Environment for Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia
- Networks allowing a social enterprise to gain access to connections and assets necessary to succeed throughout the value chain (Malecki 2019)—as an answer to threats (B), (C), (D), (H), (I) and (J).
- The advantages a cooperative, as one of legal forms of action of social enterprises in Croatia, provides to persons and SMEs include risk sharing; investments in machinery and equipment that would otherwise be unavailable to them; easier access to the market; better negotiating position in the procurement and placement of products; and increasing their capacity to develop governance, training and research (Broz and Švaljek 2019). Broz and Švaljek (2019) provide data that in 2017 there were almost 160 thousand family farms in Croatia. She is of the opinion that there is greatly unused economic potential in the field of agriculture, lying in the possibility of merging a very large number of family farms into cooperatives. It is precisely the possibility of joining family farms together into cooperatives in order to achieve easier market access that can help increase their competitiveness and provide the agricultural sector the opportunity to develop more strongly.
- Broz and Švaljek (2019) conclude that any form of economic activity in all parts of the country is essential for the country’s economic development. Croatia could, therefore, take advantage of cooperative joint venture as a business model. A new trend is also present in social entrepreneurship activities in renewable energy sources sectors, the successful examples of which are the energy cooperative on the island of Krk, EOK and the Green Energy Cooperative ZEZ (Broz and Švaljek 2019).
- Vojvodić and Šimić-Banović (2019) are of the opinion that cooperatives are just starting their new take-off, thus having the opportunity to be drivers of regional and local development through great potential and support of their members (and, more concretely, of public policy). Namely, the new cooperatives are under the umbrella of the civil sector, and in the joint mission they are open to many stakeholders and new industries, while the benefits of old cooperatives are directed towards their own membership. The development of cooperatives is particularly important in the spheres complementing the sustainability of the local economy and innovative approaches to creating new values by using renewable energy sources (sun, water and wind), sustainable waste management, dynamic, eco-agriculture, organic food cultivation and the possibility of financing new entrepreneurial ventures according to the principles of ethical banking (Vojvodić and Šimić-Banović 2019).
- The Associations Act is, in certain parts, in accordance with the basic principles of social entrepreneurship. Pursuant to Article 31, an association may carry out economic activities if required by the Statute and in accordance with special regulations governing the conditions for conducting this type of activity. Economic activities of an association may be carried out in addition to activities that achieve its objectives set out in the Statute but, due to its non-profit character, may not be carried out in order to obtain profit for its members or third parties. Thus, if the association achieves a surplus of income over expenditures in the performance of economic activities, it must be used in accordance with the Statute of the association solely to achieve the objectives set out in the Statute. Moreover, pursuant to Article 8 of the Associations Act, the activities of the association are based on the principle of democratic organization; that is, the association is governed by the members in such a manner that the internal organization of the association must be based on the principles of democratic representation and democratic expression of the will of the members, which is in accordance with the principle of democratic management emphasized in the criteria for recognizing social entrepreneurs. The number of associations in the Republic of Croatia is constantly increasing.
4.3. Monitoring of Social Enterprises and Social Entrepreneurs in Croatia
- To encourage intersectoral cooperation, which will include the media;
- To network social entrepreneurs through a platform providing them with the opportunity to cooperate and make useful resources available;
- To improve legal framework of social entrepreneurship. In order to perform this, it is necessary to prepare and draft a systematic comprehensive Act on Social Entrepreneurship that would incorporate elements of social entrepreneurship from the current laws.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Tišma, S.; Maleković, S.; Jelinčić, D.A.; Škrtić, M.M.; Keser, I. From Science to Policy: How to Support Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia. J. Risk Financial Manag. 2022, 15, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm15010023
Tišma S, Maleković S, Jelinčić DA, Škrtić MM, Keser I. From Science to Policy: How to Support Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia. Journal of Risk and Financial Management. 2022; 15(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm15010023Chicago/Turabian Style
Tišma, Sanja, Sanja Maleković, Daniela Angelina Jelinčić, Mira Mileusnić Škrtić, and Ivana Keser. 2022. "From Science to Policy: How to Support Social Entrepreneurship in Croatia" Journal of Risk and Financial Management 15, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm15010023