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Open AccessArticle

Are Family Firms Financially Healthier Than Non-Family Firm?

Department of Economics, University of Buea, Buea 00237, Cameroon
School of Accounting and Administration of Porto (ISCAP), Polytechnic Institute of Porto (IPP), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Department of Economic, University of Coimbra, 3004-531 Coimbra, Portugal
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(1), 5;
Received: 19 October 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 29 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance)
This study examines the whether or not family firms are financially healthier than non-family in terms of capital structure and leverage. It therefore takes into consideration the existence of any significant differences between the leverage and risk choices of family and non-family firms. Using a panel data set of 888 firms and 7104 firm-year observations of unlisted small and medium size firms over the period 2007–2014, we present that family owned businesses have lower financial structure than those of non-family owned businesses. This indicates that most family firms use less debt financing than non-family firms, and as such maintain a lower level of debt. Secondly, family firms demonstrate lower risk as illustrated by the Altman Z-score. The Altman Z-score scale illustrates a contrary relationship of significance with respect to family firms and their counterparts in terms of the operation aspect of the business’s risk factors. Family firms managed their business operations with lower risk and are generally healthier financially than their counterpart firms. Lastly, findings from the robust tests for the hypotheses using a sample of bankrupt firms in Iberian Balance sheet Analysis System (SABI) reveal that the proportion of failure of family firms as opposed to their counterpart firms is relatively low. Analyzing the bankruptcy files of firms from 2002 to 2014 shows a considerably low ratio of family firms at the 5% significant level. This affirms that the low risk illustrated in the Altman Z-score regression is consistent to the lower ratio of family firms that were declared bankrupted over the study period, which makes Spain an important case in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: capital structure; family firms; leverage; non-family firms; risk capital structure; family firms; leverage; non-family firms; risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ntoung, L.A.T.; Santos de Oliveira, H.M.; Sousa, B.M.F.d.; Pimentel, L.M.; Bastos, S.A.M.C. Are Family Firms Financially Healthier Than Non-Family Firm? J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13, 5.

AMA Style

Ntoung LAT, Santos de Oliveira HM, Sousa BMFd, Pimentel LM, Bastos SAMC. Are Family Firms Financially Healthier Than Non-Family Firm? Journal of Risk and Financial Management. 2020; 13(1):5.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ntoung, Lious A.T.; Santos de Oliveira, Helena M.; Sousa, Benjamim M.F.d.; Pimentel, Liliana M.; Bastos, Susana A.M.C. 2020. "Are Family Firms Financially Healthier Than Non-Family Firm?" J. Risk Financial Manag. 13, no. 1: 5.

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