Next Article in Journal
Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of Community Centre-based Arts, Leisure and Social Activities in Promoting Adult Well-being and Healthy Lifestyles
Previous Article in Journal
Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Five Southeast Asian Countries
Open AccessArticle

Exposure to Drinking Water Trihalomethanes and Their Association with Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age in Genetically Susceptible Women

Department of Environmental sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaicio g. 58, LT-44248, Kaunas, Lithuania
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4470-4485;
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Little is known about genetic susceptibility to individual trihalomethanes (THM) in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nested case-control study of 682 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania) and, using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, estimated an internal THM dose. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose, birth outcomes and individual and joint (modifying) effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms. THM exposure during entire pregnancy and specific trimesters slightly increased low birth weight (LBW) risk. When considering both THM exposure and maternal genotypes, the largest associations were found for third trimester among total THM (TTHM) and chloroform-exposed women with the GSTM1–0 genotype (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.36–14.08 and OR: 5.06; 95% CI: 1.50–17.05, respectively). A test of interaction between internal THM dose and GSTM1–0 genotype suggested a modifying effect of exposure to chloroform and bromodichloromethane on LBW risk. However, the effect on small for gestational age (SGA) was not statistically significant. These data suggest that THM internal dose may affect foetal growth and that maternal GSTM1 genotype modifies the THM exposure effects on LBW. View Full-Text
Keywords: trihalomethanes; LBW; SGA; GSTT1; GSTM1 trihalomethanes; LBW; SGA; GSTT1; GSTM1
MDPI and ACS Style

Danileviciute, A.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Vencloviene, J.; Paulauskas, A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. Exposure to Drinking Water Trihalomethanes and Their Association with Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age in Genetically Susceptible Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4470-4485.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop