Next Article in Journal
Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan
Next Article in Special Issue
AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts
Previous Article in Journal
A Four-Step Method for Optimising the Normal Water Level of Reservoirs Based on a Mathematical Programming Model—A Case Study for the Songyuan Backwater Dam in Jilin Province, China
Open AccessArticle

Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community

1
Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, 1995 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
3
Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
4
Division of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, 50 University Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
5
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1061-1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8041061
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; organophosphorus; pesticides; exposure; agriculture; biomarkers; diet children; organophosphorus; pesticides; exposure; agriculture; biomarkers; diet
MDPI and ACS Style

Bradman, A.; Castorina, R.; Boyd Barr, D.; Chevrier, J.; Harnly, M.E.; Eisen, E.A.; McKone, T.E.; Harley, K.; Holland, N.; Eskenazi, B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1061-1083.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop