What Is a School Farm? Results of a Scoping Review
3.1. Summary of Scientific and Grey Literature on School Farms
3.2. Study Populations
3.3. Early Characteristics of School Farms
3.4. Recent Literature on School Farms
3.5. Empirical Research on School Farms
Strengths and Weaknesses
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Web of Science||2,046,838|
|Citations||Study Location||Study Design||Objective||Population||Reported Results|
|Williams and McCarthy 36 (1985) ||United States||Case Study||Determine characteristics and benefits of school farms operated by vocational departments in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska and the characteristics and perceptions of their teachers and school administrators.||68 vocational agriculture departments across Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska||Physical Structure: A majority of school farms were located one mile or less from the classroom, and more than half of them were 10 acres or less in size. |
Curriculum: To supplement vocational agricultural classrooms and give supervised occupational experience to non-vocational farm students.
Obstacle: To make money for the local Future Farmers of America chapter.
|Konoshima 43 (1995) ||Japan||Case Study||Investigate the agricultural and horticultural activities at school farms supported by the Shiga Prefecture’s local self-governing bodies.||Kindergarten and primary school children||Participants: Most primary schools in Shiga prefecture have participated in agricultural activities at school farms. Obstacle/s: Procuring arable land was the greatest obstacle and most schools borrowed land from neighbouring farms. |
Curriculum: School farm activities are conducted as domestic science curriculum for first and second graders and then as its own subject for older grades.
|Alcock38 (1977) ||South Africa||Case Study||Assessing the ‘land school’ and school farm and their effect on the community.||Any farmers that were interested in becoming students||Curriculum: To establish new farmers and improve students’ farming techniques; and to increase student enrolment in farm courses.|
|Foeken et al. 34 (2010) ||Kenya||Case Study||Examine school feeding and school farming in Nakuru Town, Kenya and the extent to which school farming contributes to school feeding programs, and its|
potential benefits for children.
|116 schools (both primary and secondary)||Curriculum: To achieved a degree of self-sufficiency in their School Food programs through school farming.|
Limited access to land and water, and lack of support and leadership.
|Warsh40 (2011) ||United States||Historical||Provide a historical report of the Children’s School Farm in New York City from 1902–1931.||School-aged students (not specified)||Curriculum: Focused on the role of nature in urban life and how educators could re-examine the relationship between children, education, and nature.|
|Wydler35 (2012) ||Switzerland||Case Study||Analyse which groups of pupils involved with school farms in Switzerland were |
interested in different subjects in the eco-educational programming.
|28,000 students (1st to 9th grade)||Participants: Majority of students visited the school farm. Curriculum: Farm topics held more appeal for younger students, and girls generally showed more enthusiasm than boys in farm topics.|
The more times a student visited, the more likely they were to show interest in the farm.
|Paffarini et al. 37 (2015) ||Italy and Germany||Case study comparison||Identify the main business|
strategy and principal characteristics of
kindergarten farms and examine the value of combining agriculture and education.
|2 kindergarten schools (one in Italy and one in Germany)Italy: 14 kids; Germany: 20 kids||Participants: Kindergarten school farm customers are young families unfamiliar with farms.|
Curriculum: School farms offered educational service and farm products.
Obstacles: School farm infrastructure is built on educational and productivity functions carried out by teachers and farm staff. School farm viability is an outcome of revenue streams and costs.
|Twenter and Edwards42 (2017) ||United States||Historical||Examine the historical evolution of learning spaces and|
related resources for teaching school-based agricultural education (SBAE) in the United States.
|Not specified||Physical structure: Specialized facilities and equipment to educate students in SBAE. |
Curriculum: Federal legislative mandates solidified occupational training as a part of SBAE. Initially, learning spaces were used for agricultural instruction and production while contemporary spaces integrate academic content with agricultural concepts.
|Aniebiat Okon50 (2017) ||Nigeria||Comparative||Investigate strategies for school farm land conflict resolution in Akwa Ibom State and understand how to facilitate|
effective teaching and research in agriculture education to prevent conflict.
|150 subjects in study (70 ag teachers, 20 school management staff, 60 community leaders in school communities)||Obstacles: Agricultural education requires land for effective implantation of program. School and community conflict hinder implementation of programs.|
Solutions: School management and community leaders should communicate to prevent conflict. Government intervention is recommended to resolve school land conflict resolutions.
|Corbett et al. 29 (2017) ||Australia||Qualitative||Analyse interviews undertaken in 2016 with 22 school farm educators about the state of Tasmania’s school farms.||22 school farm educators from primary and secondary schools)||Curriculum: School farms provide experiential links between food, sustainability, and ecology. They help to address the skills shortage and challenges in retention within the sector.|
Solutions: School farms respond to workforce needs of the agricultural industry and provide a community-valued environment.
|Fifolt et al. 39 (2018) ||United States||Case Study||Explore student and parent experiences school-based urban farming with Jones Valley Teaching Farm.||33 students: 29 from grades K-8 and four high school students, |
and 25 parents
|Curriculum: Students on the school farms learned about their own personal and professional interests, developed life skills to make healthier food choices, and agents of change in their community.|
|Yopp et al. 41 (2018) ||United States||Case Study||Observed and interviewed teachers in different in classrooms and laboratories at secondary schools, in livestock barns, greenhouses, and|
vineyards on school farms and explored the relationship between personal, behavioural,
and environmental determinants of social cognitive theory within the total agricultural education program model.
|3 secondary school agricultural programs with between 2 and 5 teachers and 1700 and 3100 students.||Curriculum: School farms are made up of three-component agricultural education program model: classroom and laboratory instruction, supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) and a Future Farmers of America (FFA) club. Even in urban settings, school farms were able to use this model and deliver traditional agricultural content. According to teachers was a captivating topic for students and the school farms provided new experience for student who were not familiar with production agriculture.|
|Lambert et al. 31 (2018) ||United States||Descriptive||Explore the characteristics, utilization, perceptions, and|
potential barriers to using school farms for instructional activities as an experiential learning tool.
|64 Oregon agricultural education teachers who identified having a school farm.||Curriculum: School farms provide relevant experiential learning opportunities for students. The primary facilities available on Oregon school farms were for equipment and tool storage and animal projects. Students used school farms for SAE and laboratory instruction. Barriers of successful school farms include the condition of the school farm, facilities, finances, and teachers’ ability to manage and engage all students on the farm.|
|Fifolt and Morgan32 (2019) ||United States||Case Study||Explore principal and teacher experiences with Jones|
Valley Teaching Farm and how their school farm uses a hands-on food education model to teach academic standards-based lessons.
|4600 K-8 students, 20 staff members (15 teachers, 5 principals)||Curriculum: The school farm was seen as a catalyst for student engagement and contributed to the retention of students at risk of dropping out of school. The school farms also created leadership opportunities for students who were not as academically inclined as their peers. The school farm promotes collaboration, communication, and problem-solving skills in their content.|
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Blair, S.A.; Edwards, G.; Yu, K.; Jovel, E.; Powell, L.J.; Renwick, K.; Conklin, A.I. What Is a School Farm? Results of a Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 5332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075332
Blair SA, Edwards G, Yu K, Jovel E, Powell LJ, Renwick K, Conklin AI. What Is a School Farm? Results of a Scoping Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(7):5332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075332Chicago/Turabian Style
Blair, Sammy A., Gabrielle Edwards, Katharine Yu, Eduardo Jovel, Lisa Jordan Powell, Kerry Renwick, and Annalijn I. Conklin. 2023. "What Is a School Farm? Results of a Scoping Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20, no. 7: 5332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075332