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Article

The Effects of Winter Parks in Cold Regions on Cognition Recovery and Emotion Improvement of Older Adults: An Empirical Study of Changchun Parks

by 1,2, 1,2,* and 1,2
1
School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
Key Laboratory of Cold Region Urban and Rural Human Settlement Environment Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin 150001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032135
Received: 6 December 2022 / Revised: 16 January 2023 / Accepted: 18 January 2023 / Published: 24 January 2023

Abstract

Urban parks are one of the primary settings for older adults to exercise, and their health benefits have been confirmed by a large number of studies. However, with the increased social attention to mental health, there is not enough research on the short-term mental health recovery of older adults in parks. Meanwhile, the health recovery effects of winter parks in special climate areas have not been well explored. This study aimed to explore the effects of winter parks in cold regions on the short-term mental health recovery of older adults and the potential predictors of these effects, including individual status, park characteristics, and behavioral characteristics. This study divided short-term mental health recovery into cognitive recovery and emotional improvement, and selected the digit span test and 10 kinds of emotional expression as the experimental methods, recruited 92 older adults from 6 parks in Changchun, and compared the pre-test and post-test results for evaluation. The results showed that winter parks in cold cities still had short-term cognitive recovery and emotional improvement effects on older adults. The main park characteristic factors affecting the overall cognitive recovery were the evergreen vegetation area and the existence of structures, and that which affected the overall emotional improvement was the main pathway length. Furthermore, individual conditions, including gender, age, physical health, living and customary conditions, and park characteristics, including park type, park area, main pathway length, square area, equipment area, evergreen vegetation area, the presence of water, and structures, all related to short-term mental health recovery effects. Among behavioral characteristics, stay time in parks and MVPA (Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity) times were also related to certain effects, but behavior type was not.
Keywords: winter parks; cold regions; older adults; cognition recovery; emotion improvement winter parks; cold regions; older adults; cognition recovery; emotion improvement

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, T.; Leng, H.; Yuan, Q. The Effects of Winter Parks in Cold Regions on Cognition Recovery and Emotion Improvement of Older Adults: An Empirical Study of Changchun Parks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032135

AMA Style

Yan T, Leng H, Yuan Q. The Effects of Winter Parks in Cold Regions on Cognition Recovery and Emotion Improvement of Older Adults: An Empirical Study of Changchun Parks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(3):2135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032135

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yan, Tianjiao, Hong Leng, and Qing Yuan. 2023. "The Effects of Winter Parks in Cold Regions on Cognition Recovery and Emotion Improvement of Older Adults: An Empirical Study of Changchun Parks" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20, no. 3: 2135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032135

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