Parent Education for Responding to and Supporting Youth with Suicidal Thoughts (PERSYST): An Evaluation of an Online Gatekeeper Training Program with Australian Parents
- Completion of the LivingWorks Start training program by parents will be associated with improved self-efficacy to support a young person experiencing suicidal thoughts and feelings, increased intentions to seek help for their child, improved suicide literacy, and reduced suicide stigma.
- Parents’ scores on each variable will remain stable from post-intervention to follow-up.
- LivingWorks Start training is not associated with increased distress for parents.
- LivingWorks Start training is acceptable to parents (i.e., enjoyable and worthwhile).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.4.1. Demographic Information
2.4.2. Post-Participation Distress
2.4.3. Perceived Self-Efficacy
2.4.5. Suicide Stigma
2.4.6. Suicide Literacy
2.4.7. History of Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour
2.4.8. Program Acceptability
2.4.9. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Participant and Demographic Characteristics of the Sample
3.2. Self-Efficacy, Help-Seeking, Suicide Stigma, and Suicide Literacy
3.3. Program Acceptability
3.4. Post-Participation Distress
3.5. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators
4.1. Key Findings
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. History of Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour Questions
- Have you ever been diagnosed with a mental health problem?
If yes, please select what you have been diagnosed with (tick all that apply):
- Not sure
- Bipolar Disorder
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Any personality disorder
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Substance Use Disorder
- Psychotic Disorder
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CD)
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
- Something else not on this list (please describe_____________)
- I’m not sure
- Have you ever had thoughts of suicide?
- Have you ever self-harmed?
- Have you ever personally known someone who has taken their own life? (i.e., died by suicide)?
If yes:How many people do you know? _________
- What was their relationship to you (tick all that apply)?
- Other family member
- Someone else not listed above
- When did the person/people die (tick all that apply)?
- Within the past 6 months
- 7–12 months ago
- 2–3 years ago
- 4–5 years ago
- 6–10 years ago
- 10+ years ago
- Have you ever supported a friend or family member who was experiencing suicidal thoughts or feelings?
- Have you ever completed suicide prevention training?
- Yes (as part of my occupation, e.g., psychologist/social worker)
- When did this training take place? Please tick the box:
- In the past week
- In the past month
- In the past year
- In the past 3 years
- Longer than three years ago
- To the best of your knowledge, has your child ever engaged in suicide-related behaviors?
- Have you had personal experience of suicide-related thoughts or feelings yourself?
- Have you ever supported someone else who was demonstrating suicide-related behavior/thoughts?
- Have you ever supported your child with suicide related behaviours/thoughts?
Appendix B. Sample Demographic Characteristics
|Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander status|
|Main language spoken at home|
|Region of birth|
|Number of children aged 12–251|
|Gender of one child|
|Age of one child|
|Relationship to one child|
|Household family structure|
|Single parent with a partner||3.9|
|Living with partner and children||56.7|
|Living with children only||24.4|
|Living with partner only||10.2|
|Other (e.g., friends, grandparents, etc.)||8.7|
|Owns a home||66.9|
|Rents a home||18.9|
|Lives with family of origin||14.2|
|In a relationship||78.0|
|Bisexual or pansexual||5.5|
|Gay or lesbian||1.6|
|Did not wish to disclose||1.6|
|Other roles (e.g., business ownership, voluntary work, household duties)||10.2|
|Nature of work|
|Not working in healthcare||67.7|
|Working in healthcare||32.3|
|Other tertiary education||19.7|
|Did not wish to disclose||1.6|
|Previously completed suicide prevention training2|
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|Mean||95% CI a||p Value b||Mean||95% CI||p Value b|
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McKay, S.; Byrne, S.J.; Clarke, A.; Lamblin, M.; Veresova, M.; Robinson, J. Parent Education for Responding to and Supporting Youth with Suicidal Thoughts (PERSYST): An Evaluation of an Online Gatekeeper Training Program with Australian Parents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095025
McKay S, Byrne SJ, Clarke A, Lamblin M, Veresova M, Robinson J. Parent Education for Responding to and Supporting Youth with Suicidal Thoughts (PERSYST): An Evaluation of an Online Gatekeeper Training Program with Australian Parents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(9):5025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095025Chicago/Turabian Style
McKay, Samuel, Sadhbh J. Byrne, Alison Clarke, Michelle Lamblin, Maria Veresova, and Jo Robinson. 2022. "Parent Education for Responding to and Supporting Youth with Suicidal Thoughts (PERSYST): An Evaluation of an Online Gatekeeper Training Program with Australian Parents" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 9: 5025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095025