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Surveillance Web System and Mouthwash-Saliva qPCR for Labor Ambulatory SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Prevention

Laboratory of Epidemiological Risk Analysis (LANREF), Montecillo Campus, Postgraduate College, Texcoco 56230, CP, Mexico
Center for Research and Applied Technology in Jalisco (CIATEJ), Jalisco 44270, CP, Mexico
Secretary of Health-CDMX, Mexico City 06900, CP, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo Polosa, Pietro Ferrara, Luciana Albano and Venera Tomaselli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1271;
Received: 18 November 2021 / Revised: 15 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
This study provides a safe and low-cost in-house protocol for RT-qPCR-based detection of SARS-CoV-2 using mouthwash–saliva self-collected specimens to achieve clinical and epidemiological surveillance in a real-time web environment applied to ambulatory populations. The in-house protocol comprises a mouthwash–saliva self-collected specimen, heat virus inactivation, and primers to target virus N-gene region and the human RPP30-gene. Aligning with 209 SARS-CoV-2 sequences confirmed specificity including the Alpha variant from the UK. Development, validation, and statistical comparison with official nasopharyngeal swabbing RT-qPCR test were conducted with 115 specimens of ambulatory volunteers. A web–mobile application platform was developed to integrate a real-time epidemiological and clinical core baseline database with mouthwash–saliva RT-qPCR testing. Nine built-in algorithms were generated for decision-making on testing, confining, monitoring, and self-reports to family, social, and work environments. Epidemiological and clinical follow-up and SARS-CoV-2 testing generated a database of 37,351 entries allowing individual decision-making for prevention. Mouthwash–saliva had higher sensitivity than nasopharyngeal swabbing in detecting asymptomatic and mild symptomatic cases with 720 viral copy number (VCN)/mL as the detection limit (Ct = 37.6). Cycling threshold and viral loading were marginally different (p = 0.057) between asymptomatic (35 Ct ± 2.8; 21,767.7 VCN/mL, range 720–77,278) and symptomatic (31.3 Ct ± 4.5; 747,294.3 VCN/mL, range 1433.6–3.08 × 106). We provided proof-of-concept evidence of effective surveillance to target asymptomatic and moderate symptomatic ambulatory individuals based on integrating a bio-safety level II laboratory, self-collected, low-risk, low-cost detection protocol, and a real-time digital monitoring system. Mouthwash–saliva was effective for SARS-CoV-2 sampling for the first time at the community level. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; monitoring; prevention; surveillance; COVID-19 coronavirus; monitoring; prevention; surveillance; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mora-Aguilera, G.; Martínez-Bustamante, V.; Acevedo-Sánchez, G.; Coria-Contreras, J.J.; Guzmán-Hernández, E.; Flores-Colorado, O.E.; Mendoza-Ramos, C.; Hernández-Nava, G.; Álvarez-Maya, I.; Gutiérrez-Espinosa, M.A.; Gómez-Linton, R.; Robles-Bustamante, A.C.; Gallardo-Hernández, A. Surveillance Web System and Mouthwash-Saliva qPCR for Labor Ambulatory SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Prevention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1271.

AMA Style

Mora-Aguilera G, Martínez-Bustamante V, Acevedo-Sánchez G, Coria-Contreras JJ, Guzmán-Hernández E, Flores-Colorado OE, Mendoza-Ramos C, Hernández-Nava G, Álvarez-Maya I, Gutiérrez-Espinosa MA, Gómez-Linton R, Robles-Bustamante AC, Gallardo-Hernández A. Surveillance Web System and Mouthwash-Saliva qPCR for Labor Ambulatory SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Prevention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1271.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mora-Aguilera, Gustavo, Verónica Martínez-Bustamante, Gerardo Acevedo-Sánchez, Juan J. Coria-Contreras, Eduardo Guzmán-Hernández, Oscar E. Flores-Colorado, Coral Mendoza-Ramos, Gabriel Hernández-Nava, Ikuri Álvarez-Maya, M. Alejandra Gutiérrez-Espinosa, Raael Gómez-Linton, Ana Carolina Robles-Bustamante, and Alberto Gallardo-Hernández. 2022. "Surveillance Web System and Mouthwash-Saliva qPCR for Labor Ambulatory SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Prevention" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1271.

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