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Review

The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Eye: A Review

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Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
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Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031186
Received: 3 December 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 15 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
Air pollution is inevitably the result of human civilization, industrialization, and globalization. It is composed of a mixture of gases and particles at harmful levels. Particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxides (CO2) are mainly generated from vehicle emissions and fuel consumption and are the main materials causing outdoor air pollution. Exposure to polluted outdoor air has been proven to be harmful to human eyes. On the other hand, indoor air pollution from environmental tobacco smoking, heating, cooking, or poor indoor ventilation is also related to several eye diseases, including conjunctivitis, glaucoma, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the past 30 years, no updated review has provided an overview of the impact of air pollution on the eye. We reviewed reports on air pollution and eye diseases in the last three decades in the PubMed database, Medline databases, and Google Scholar and discussed the effect of various outdoor and indoor pollutants on human eyes. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; eye diseases; ocular surface diseases; glaucoma; cataract; retinal diseases air pollution; eye diseases; ocular surface diseases; glaucoma; cataract; retinal diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-C.; Chiu, C.-C.; Lee, P.-Y.; Chen, K.-J.; He, C.-X.; Hsu, S.-K.; Cheng, K.-C. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Eye: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031186

AMA Style

Lin C-C, Chiu C-C, Lee P-Y, Chen K-J, He C-X, Hsu S-K, Cheng K-C. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Eye: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Chia-Ching, Chien-Chih Chiu, Po-Yen Lee, Kuo-Jen Chen, Chen-Xi He, Sheng-Kai Hsu, and Kai-Chun Cheng. 2022. "The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Eye: A Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031186

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