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Direct Medical Cost of Stroke and the Cost-Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
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Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
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Neurology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031078
Received: 9 December 2021 / Revised: 9 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 January 2022 / Published: 19 January 2022
Background: Stroke has significant direct medical costs, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are better alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to determine the direct medical costs of stroke, with emphasis on AF stroke and the cost-effectiveness of DOACs among stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Methods: This study utilised in-patient data from the case mix unit of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 2011 and 2018. Direct medical costs of stroke were determined using a top-down costing approach and factors associated with costs were identified. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated to compare the cost-effectiveness between DOACs and warfarin. Results: The direct medical cost of stroke was MYR 11,669,414.83 (n = 3689). AF-related stroke cases had higher median cost of MYR 2839.73 (IQR 2269.79–3101.52). Regression analysis showed that stroke type (AF versus non-AF stroke) (p = 0.013), stroke severity (p = 0.010) and discharge status (p < 0.001) significantly influenced stroke costs. DOACs were cost-effective compared to warfarin with an ICER of MYR 19.25. Conclusions: The direct medical cost of stroke is substantial, with AF-stroke having a higher median cost per stroke care. DOACs were cost effective in the treatment of AF-related stroke in UKMMC. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; atrial fibrillation; direct medical cost; direct oral anticoagulants; cost-effectiveness analysis stroke; atrial fibrillation; direct medical cost; direct oral anticoagulants; cost-effectiveness analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Azahar, S.N.; Sulong, S.; Wan Zaidi, W.A.; Muhammad, N.; Kamisah, Y.; Masbah, N. Direct Medical Cost of Stroke and the Cost-Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031078

AMA Style

Azahar SN, Sulong S, Wan Zaidi WA, Muhammad N, Kamisah Y, Masbah N. Direct Medical Cost of Stroke and the Cost-Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azahar, Siti Norain, Saperi Sulong, Wan Asyraf Wan Zaidi, Norliza Muhammad, Yusof Kamisah, and Norliana Masbah. 2022. "Direct Medical Cost of Stroke and the Cost-Effectiveness of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031078

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