An Examination of US COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Case Study Approach
2.2. Government Website Review
2.3. Key Informant Interviews and Survey
2.4. Social Media Search
3.1. Government Websites
3.2. Key Informant Interviews and Survey
“Registration for vaccine interest was completed using the internet, almost exclusively, marginalized communities (i.e., people of color, the poor, the transient) may not have had the opportunity to register for their vaccine interest. We did not go door to door to identify people’s interests and register them (with acknowledgment of their limitations—no transportation, etc.).”
“Not equitable, Philadelphia missed the mark with partnering with diverse organizations to ensure equitable access and distribution of the vaccine to the most vulnerable populations”
“The Latino population was receiving mixed messages “Operation Warp Speed” was not clearly, explained…Very unreliable source President Trump contradicting the experts on national television…Materials not available in Spanish for low literacy levels…There did not appear to be great interest in providing, clear information to the Latinx population. Mega sites were usually not located in poor communities, limited hours, and roll out was inefficient for example in [name] county the Mega Site was open 3 days from 9am-3pm....Outrageous!”
“Understanding the ever changing tiers” (phases)
“Vaccine delivery chain issues plagued the rollout”
“No rollout of public education from federal, state or local government…this generated mistrust and fear”
“Provide vaccines to local health departments that best know their community/populations. Local health departments providing vaccine/medication to the community in times of crises/emergency/pandemics has been the overarching plan for decades. COVID-19 vaccine deployment in New Jersey has not followed that model.”
“Follow the plans... They were there for a reason, but abandoned without explanation.”
“Public health efforts must start with public education. There must also be a plan for distribution that is equitable. Federal, state, and local governments have to work together.”
“the government must work with a diverse group of organizations that work within the community. Partnering with these organizations helps vaccinate the most vulnerable populations.”
3.3. Vaccine Availability via Social Media
4.1. Historical Lessons Learned and Community “Buy-In”
4.2. COVID-19 Vaccination Distribution and Logistics Challenges
4.3. The Phased Approach
4.6. Policy Implications and Framework for the Future
5. Limitations to the Study
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Online Tools||Languages?||Call/Email |
For Appt for Computer Literacy/Accessibility
|Sign Language Available for the Press Conference|
|New Jersey||NJ VSS|
QR Code needed
|New York||“Am I eligible” app and State form/waitlist|
QR Code used
|Translations available||Call Center||Yes|
|NYC||“Am I eligible” app and State form/waitlist|
QR Code used
|Translations available||Call Center||Unknown|
|Pennsylvania||Provider map||Translations available||Not seen||Yes|
|Philadelphia||Provider map||Translations |
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Moss, E.; Patterson, N.A.; Seals, B.F. An Examination of US COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 15629. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315629
Moss E, Patterson NA, Seals BF. An Examination of US COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(23):15629. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315629Chicago/Turabian Style
Moss, Ethan, Natasha A. Patterson, and Brenda F. Seals. 2022. "An Examination of US COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 23: 15629. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315629