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Article

Relationships between Occupational Stress, Change in Work Environment during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Non-Healthcare Workers in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrea Fiorillo, Maurizio Pompili and Gaia Sampogna
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020983
Received: 6 December 2021 / Revised: 11 January 2022 / Accepted: 13 January 2022 / Published: 16 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
This study aims to clarify the effect of occupational stress and changes in the work environment on non-healthcare workers’ (HCWs) mental health during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 16 to 17 December 2020. Data from 807 non-HCWs were included. We evaluated occupational stress using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, respectively. We collected demographic variables, work-related variables, and the variables associated with COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratios for depressive and anxiety groups were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for all the demographic variables, work-related variables, COVID-19-related variables, and the six subdivided GJSQ subscales. The results confirm a relationship between variance in workload, job future ambiguity, social support from coworkers, having contact with COVID-19 patients, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Paying attention to job future ambiguity, the variance in workload at the workplace and individual perspectives, promoting contact and support among coworkers using online communication tools, and reducing contact with COVID-19 patients, will be useful for decreasing the depressive and anxiety symptoms among non-HCWs. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; occupational stress; mental health; non-healthcare workers; job future ambiguity; variance in workload; depressive symptoms; anxiety symptoms COVID-19; occupational stress; mental health; non-healthcare workers; job future ambiguity; variance in workload; depressive symptoms; anxiety symptoms
MDPI and ACS Style

Deguchi, Y.; Iwasaki, S.; Niki, A.; Kadowaki, A.; Hirota, T.; Shirahama, Y.; Nakamichi, Y.; Okawa, Y.; Uesaka, Y.; Inoue, K. Relationships between Occupational Stress, Change in Work Environment during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Non-Healthcare Workers in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020983

AMA Style

Deguchi Y, Iwasaki S, Niki A, Kadowaki A, Hirota T, Shirahama Y, Nakamichi Y, Okawa Y, Uesaka Y, Inoue K. Relationships between Occupational Stress, Change in Work Environment during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Non-Healthcare Workers in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020983

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deguchi, Yasuhiko, Shinichi Iwasaki, Akihiro Niki, Aya Kadowaki, Tomoyuki Hirota, Yoshiki Shirahama, Yoko Nakamichi, Yutaro Okawa, Yuki Uesaka, and Koki Inoue. 2022. "Relationships between Occupational Stress, Change in Work Environment during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Non-Healthcare Workers in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020983

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