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Review

A Review on Aging, Sarcopenia, Falls, and Resistance Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

1
ESECS—Polytechnic of Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal
2
Life Quality Research Center (CIEQV), 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
3
Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
4
Center for Innovative Care and Health Technology (ciTechCare), 2410-541 Leiria, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ruth E Taylor-Piliae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020874
Received: 18 November 2021 / Revised: 9 January 2022 / Accepted: 11 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
As aging continues to grow in our society, sarcopenia and associated fall risk is considered a public health problem since falling is the third cause of chronic disability. Falls are negatively related to functionality and independence and positively associated with morbidity and mortality. The cost of treatment of secondary injuries related to falls is high. For example, one in ten fall incidents leads to bone fractures and several other comorbidities. As demonstrated by several experimental studies, adopting a more active lifestyle is critical for reducing the number of fall episodes and their consequences. Therefore, it is essential to debate the proven physical exercise methods to reduce falls and fall-related effects. Since muscle mass, muscle strength, bone density, and cartilage function may play significant roles in daily activities, resistance training may positively and significantly affect the elderly. This narrative review aimed to examine current evidence on existing resistance training using resistance machines and bodyweight or low-cost equipment for the elderly and how they are related to falls and fall-related consequences. We provide theoretical links between aging, sarcopenia, and falls linking to resistance training and offer practical suggestions to exercise professionals seeking to promote regular physical exercise to promote quality of life in this population. Exercise programs focusing on strength may significantly influence muscle mass and muscle strength, minimizing functional decline and risk of falling. Resistance training programs should be customized to each elderly according to age, sex, and other fundamental and individual aspects. This narrative review provides evidence to support recommendations for practical resistance training in the elderly related to intensity and volume. A properly designed resistance training program with adequate instructions and technique is safe for the elderly. It should include an individualized approach based on existing equipment (i.e., body weight, resistance machines). Existing literature shows that exercise performance towards 2–3 sets of 1–2 exercises per major muscle group, performing 5–8 repetitions or achieving intensities of 50–80% of 1RM, 2–3 times per week should be recommended, followed by training principles such as periodization and progression. Bearing this in mind, health and exercise professionals should combine efforts focusing on efficient strategies to reduce falls among the elderly and promote higher experiences of well-being at advanced stages in life. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; sarcopenia; fall; resistance training; elderly aging; sarcopenia; fall; resistance training; elderly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, F.; Domingos, C.; Monteiro, D.; Morouço, P. A Review on Aging, Sarcopenia, Falls, and Resistance Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 874. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020874

AMA Style

Rodrigues F, Domingos C, Monteiro D, Morouço P. A Review on Aging, Sarcopenia, Falls, and Resistance Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):874. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020874

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodrigues, Filipe, Christophe Domingos, Diogo Monteiro, and Pedro Morouço. 2022. "A Review on Aging, Sarcopenia, Falls, and Resistance Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 874. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020874

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