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Systematic Review

LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration

Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869
Received: 31 October 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 13 January 2022
The health and safety of LGBTQI+ migrants or migrants who are of diverse sexual orientation, gender identity or expression (SOGIE) remains an under-studied area, particularly for the period during transit from their place of origin to destination. This systematic review aims to describe the literature on the health risks and consequences among SOGIE migrants during transit and examine their access and use of services. Six peer-reviewed databases and websites of nine large migration organisations were searched to identify the literature on forced migrants and sexual and gender minorities. Twenty English-language studies from 2000–2021 were included and analysed drawing on a conceptual framework. Studies emerged from six regions and the majority of research participants identified as gay men. In general, quality appraisal demonstrated studies as either medium or high quality. Findings suggested five common themes associated with SOGIE health and well-being, including: daily exposure to discrimination, harassment and violence; coping, social support and resilience; access to services; mental health; and physical and sexual health. Depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were prevalent amongst SOGIE migrants, particularly when associated with detention or camp environments, and were exacerbated by social isolation. Barriers to accessing healthcare were identified and specific sexual health services were often found lacking, especially for trans persons. Unsurprisingly, during transit, SOGIE migrants are very likely to experience the double marginalisation of their migrant or minority status and their gender identity. Results indicate that services for SOGIE migrants need to tailor service access and support approaches to respond to the particular health and protection needs of SOGIE individuals in each setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: forced migration; health; protection; diverse SOGIE; LGBTQI+; systematic review forced migration; health; protection; diverse SOGIE; LGBTQI+; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yarwood, V.; Checchi, F.; Lau, K.; Zimmerman, C. LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869

AMA Style

Yarwood V, Checchi F, Lau K, Zimmerman C. LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yarwood, Vanessa, Francesco Checchi, Karen Lau, and Cathy Zimmerman. 2022. "LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869

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