LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration
2. Materials and Methods
- Key term 1:
- MH “refugees” or MH “undocumented immigrants”or refugee* or asylum seeker* or undocumented migra* or forced migra* or irregular migra* or displace*;
- Key term 2:
- MH “sexual and gender minorities”or gender non-conform* or gender minorit* or gay or lesbian* or LGBT* or queer* or bisexual* or intersex or SOGIE* or transsex* or transgend* or trans peop* or non-binary or homosex*;
- Limit to y = “2000 − Current”.
3.1. Study Characteristics
3.2. Gender Terminology
3.3. Summary of Findings
- Daily exposure to discrimination, harassment and violence;
- Coping, social support and resilience;
- Access to services;
- Mental health; and
- Physical and sexual health
3.3.1. Daily Exposure to Discrimination, Harassment and Violence
3.3.2. Coping, Social Support and Resilience
3.3.3. Access to Services
3.3.4. Mental Health
3.3.5. Physical and Sexual Health
4.1. Conceptual Framework
4.1.1. Minority Identities
4.1.2. Stress Exposures
4.3. Policy, Program and Research Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sample||People of all ages identifying as:|
(i) diverse SOGIE and
(ii) refugees, asylum seekers, or forced irregular migrants
Published after 1 January 2000
Those with a traditional normative binary SOGIE
Published prior to 1 January 2000
|Phenomenon of interest||Specific experiences during the migration journey that are related to SOGIE||Only pre-migration experiences|
|Design||Any study design that includes empirical evidence and not in exclusion list||Systematic reviews, reports, briefings, legal cases, commentaries, no empirical evidence|
|Evaluation||Mental and physical health during transit and immediately after arrival|
Services available and barriers to access
|Integration experiences only|
|Research type||Peer-reviewed literature|
Full text available
|Full text not available|
|Author, Year||Objective||Setting||Study Design, Methods, Sampling||Study Population||Quality Appraisal Score|
|Alessi et al. 2018 ||To investigate how stress shapes migration experiences of LGBTQ refugees||Austria, Netherlands||Mixed methods:|
Cross-sectional survey, and qualitative interviews.
|38 LGBTQ adults in Europe from MENA 1 + Asia. Asylum seekers: accepted, pending or rejected||100% CASP|
|Bayramoglu et al., 2018 ||To shed light on interaction of forced migration, sexuality, and media.||Germany||Qualitative ethnography, interviews and observation. Snowball sampling||10 adults: Syrian + Egyptian. Queer as defined by author. Refugees.||50%|
|Bhagat et al., 2020 ||Explore queer forced displacement and how they survive and navigate spaces in Cape Town||South Africa||Qualitative interviews.|
|6 adults: Kenya, Zimbabwe, and DRC 2. Queer as defined by author. Refugees and asylum seekers||40%|
|Broqua et al., 2021 ||To report on health and living conditions for Senegalese gay men in Mauritania applying for resettlement||Mauritania||Qualitative interviews. Snowball sampling||10 Senegalese men self-identified as gay. Refugees, asylum seekers, or rejected asylum seekers||30%|
|Clark et al., 2021 ||To assess and compare prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Lebanese and Syrian MSM and transgender women||Lebanon||Cross-sectional quantitative survey.|
Respondent driven, snowball sampling
|488 MSM and transgender women: 230 displaced Syrians and 258 Lebanese. Forcibly displaced due to war or identity||65% |
|Fox et al., 2020 ||To investigate how mental distress, social isolation, identity disclosure, and asylum procedures are interlinked for LGBTQ asylum seekers||US and Canada||Cross-sectional, quantitative online survey. Purposive sampling||308 Adults. LGBTQ refugees and asylum seekers||70% |
|Golembe et al., 2020 ||To investigate how LGBTQ* refugees experience minority stress after migrating, including distal and proximal stress, and mental health||Germany||Qualitative FGDs 3, interviews, + demographic questionnaire.|
|26 adults from MENA, Middle East, Asia. Self-identified as LGBTQ*. Refugees, attempted or rejected asylum seekers||100%|
|Gottlieb et al., 2020 ||To provide insights into health and utilisation of services through comparison of LGBTIQ vs. non-LGBTIQ asylum seekers||Germany||Cross-sectional quantitative survey. Mix of non-random and weighted random sampling||32 responses from refugees and asylum seekers in LGBTIQ shelter.||85%|
|Jafari F, 2014 ||To explore the impacts of race and sexual orientation on Iranian queer migrants||Turkey||Ethnographic+ qualitative interviews + participant observationUnknown sampling||19 adult queer Iranian men. Asylum seekers or refugees||30%|
|Pincock, 2020 ||To explore protection issues in communities among refugees in urban, camp, and settlement contexts in East Africa.||Kenya||Ethnographic + qualitative participant observation + interviews.Snowball sampling||LGBTI refugees. No sample size given||40%|
|Tohme et al., 2016 ||To determine prevalence of HIV and psychosocial correlates among Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian MSM refugees in Lebanon||Lebanon||Quantitative cross-sectional surveys|
Long chain peer referral method sampling
|150 adult refugees. Gay, bisexual, MSM||70%|
|Amnesty International, 2017 ||To document the path of flight from Honduras, Salvador and Guatemala to Mexico and the US||Mexico||Qualitative interviews.|
|20 refugees and asylum seekers identifying as gay men or trans women||40%|
|Chynoweth S, Women’s Refugee Commission, 2019 ||To examine sexual violence experiences by refugee men and boys traveling the central Mediterranean migration route||Italy||Qualitative. Key informant interviews + FGDs. Purposive sampling||15 refugees and migrants with diverse SOGIESC 4.||90%|
|Chynoweth S, Women’s Refugee Commission, 2019 ||To examine sexual violence experienced by refugees with diverse SOGIESC and trans women in Kenya||Kenya||Qualitative interviews + FGDs.|
|4 FGDs with refugees from the DRC, Somalia, and South Sudan with diverse SOGIESC||90%|
|Dwyer E, The Edge Effect, 2021 ||Reports on violence and exclusion experienced by people with diverse SOGIESC in humanitarian settings||Bangladesh||Qualitative, interviews Sampling unknown||35 respondent: refugees with diverse SOGIESC||60%|
|Ghosal N, Human Rights Watch, 2020 ||To document violence and discrimination against LGBT asylum seekers in the US and Central America||El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and US||Qualitative interviews|
|20 LGBT asylum seekers and refugees||60%|
|ORAM, 2013 ||To explore protection issues amongst SGN 5 refugees in Mexico||Mexico||Qualitative, |
Interviews. Likely purposive sampling.
|14 SGN refugees and asylum seekers||60%|
|ORAM, 2013 ||To identify protection issues for LGBTI asylum seekers and refugees in South Africa||Cape Town||Qualitative, interviews|
|14 SGN refugees and asylum seekers from Africa + Asia||60%|
|ORAM, 2011 ||To document protection gaps facing LGBT refugees in Turkey||Turkey||Qualitative, interviews|
|62 LGBT asylum seekers and refugees||60%|
|ORAM, Refugee Law Project, 2013 ||To explore protection issues for SGN refugees in Uganda||Uganda||Qualitative, interviews|
|25 SGN refugees from Africa||80%|
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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Yarwood, V.; Checchi, F.; Lau, K.; Zimmerman, C. LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869
Yarwood V, Checchi F, Lau K, Zimmerman C. LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869Chicago/Turabian Style
Yarwood, Vanessa, Francesco Checchi, Karen Lau, and Cathy Zimmerman. 2022. "LGBTQI + Migrants: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework of Health, Safety and Wellbeing during Migration" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020869