Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as an additive in flame retardants, plasticizers, lubricants, consumer chemicals, and foaming agents. They can accumulate in aquatic organisms from water (waterborne exposure) and food (dietary exposure). However, the bioaccumulation characteristics and relative importance of different exposure routes to the bioaccumulation of OPEs are relatively poorly understood. In this study, Daphnia magna
were exposed to fo typical OPEs (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)), and their toxicokinetics under waterborne and dietary exposure routes were analyzed. For the waterborne exposure route, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) increased in the order of TBOEP, TCEP, TDCPP, and TPHP, which were consistent with their uptake rate constants. TPHP might have the most substantial accumulation potential while TBOEP may have the smallest potential. In dietary exposure, the depuration rate constants of four OPEs were different from those in the waterborne experiment, which may indicate other depuration mechanisms in two exposure routes. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) of fur OPEs were all below 1, suggesting trophic dilution in the transfer of four OPEs from Scenedesmus obliquus
to D. magna
. Except for TBOEP, the contributions of dietary exposure were generally lower than waterborne exposure in D. magna
under two exposure concentrations. This study provides information on the bioaccumulation and contribution of OPEs in D. magna
via different exposure routes and highlights the importance of considering different exposure routes in assessing the risk of OPEs.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.