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Article

Health Disparity Resulting from the Effect of Built Environment on Temperature-Related Mortality in a Subtropical Urban Setting

1
Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC), The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
2
GX Foundation, Hong Kong SAR, China
3
Centre for Clinical Research and Biostatistics (CCRB), The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Office of Research and Knowledge Transfer Services (ORKTS), The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148506
Received: 13 June 2022 / Revised: 4 July 2022 / Accepted: 8 July 2022 / Published: 12 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Structural Determinants of Health Disparities)
Whereas previous studies have assessed the overall health impact of temperature in Hong Kong, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the health impact is modified by local temperature of small geographic units, which may be related to the diverse socioeconomic characteristics of these units. The effects of local temperature on non-accidental and cause-specific mortality were analyzed using Bayesian spatial models at a small-area level, adjusting for potential confounders, i.e., area-level air pollutants, socioeconomic status, and green space, as well as spatial dependency. We found that a 10% increase in green space density was associated with an estimated 4.80% decrease in non-accidental mortality risk and a 5.75% decrease in cardiovascular disease mortality risk in Hong Kong, whereas variation in local annual temperature did not significantly contribute to mortality. We also found that the spatial variation of mortality within this city could be explained by the geographic distribution of green space and socioeconomic factors rather than local temperature or air pollution. The findings and methodology of this study may help to further understanding and investigation of social and structural determinants of health disparities, particularly place-based built environment across class-based small geographic units in a city, taking into account the intersection of multiple factors from individual to population levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: mortality; local temperature; green space; social and structural determinants of health disparities; Bayesian spatial analysis; Hong Kong mortality; local temperature; green space; social and structural determinants of health disparities; Bayesian spatial analysis; Hong Kong
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Z.; Chan, E.Y.-Y.; Wong, C.-S.; Liu, S.; Zee, B.C.-Y. Health Disparity Resulting from the Effect of Built Environment on Temperature-Related Mortality in a Subtropical Urban Setting. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148506

AMA Style

Huang Z, Chan EY-Y, Wong C-S, Liu S, Zee BC-Y. Health Disparity Resulting from the Effect of Built Environment on Temperature-Related Mortality in a Subtropical Urban Setting. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(14):8506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Zhe, Emily Ying-Yang Chan, Chi-Shing Wong, Sida Liu, and Benny Chung-Ying Zee. 2022. "Health Disparity Resulting from the Effect of Built Environment on Temperature-Related Mortality in a Subtropical Urban Setting" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 14: 8506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148506

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