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Article

Stress Increases the Association between Cigarette Smoking and Mental Disorders, as Measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, in the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort during the Pandemic

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Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Colima, Colima 28040, Mexico
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Cancerology State Institute, Colima State Health Services, Colima 28040, Mexico
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Frontier Science Foundation, Brookline, MA 02446, USA
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Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sungkyu Lee, Yu Jin Paek and Jinyoung Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138207
Received: 28 May 2022 / Revised: 30 June 2022 / Accepted: 3 July 2022 / Published: 5 July 2022
Background: Smoking has been associated with mental disorders (MD). People who smoke are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and experiencing more severe symptoms of the illness. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and MD before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether it was influenced by COVID-19-related stress in the MASH cohort. Methods: An ambispective design was used with data collected during the pandemic (July/August 2020) by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, a parameter for stress, and data collected at the participants’ last cohort visit before the pandemic (December 2019). Results: In our sample of 314 participants, 58.6% were living with HIV, 39.2% had MD, 52.5% smoked before, and 47.8% smoked during the pandemic. Participants with MD were twice as likely to smoke cigarettes both before (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21–3.37, p = 0.007) and during the pandemic (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.24–3.56, p = 0.006); and experienced higher levels of stress measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale (8.59 [5.0–10.0] vs. 7.65 [5.0–10.0]; p = 0.026) compared to those without MD. Participants with MD and high levels of stress smoked more days per month (20.1 [0–30] days) than those with lower levels of stress (9.2 [0–30] days, p = 0.021), and more than those with high levels of stress, but no MD (2.6 [0–30] days, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Cigarette smoking decreased in the MASH cohort during the pandemic, but increased in participants with MD and higher levels of stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; COVID-19 stress; HIV smoking; COVID-19 stress; HIV
MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz-Martinez, J.; Delgado-Enciso, I.; Campa, A.; Tamargo, J.A.; Martin, H.R.; Johnson, A.; Siminski, S.; Gorbach, P.M.; Baum, M.K. Stress Increases the Association between Cigarette Smoking and Mental Disorders, as Measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, in the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort during the Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8207. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138207

AMA Style

Diaz-Martinez J, Delgado-Enciso I, Campa A, Tamargo JA, Martin HR, Johnson A, Siminski S, Gorbach PM, Baum MK. Stress Increases the Association between Cigarette Smoking and Mental Disorders, as Measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, in the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort during the Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):8207. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138207

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diaz-Martinez, Janet, Ivan Delgado-Enciso, Adriana Campa, Javier A. Tamargo, Haley R. Martin, Angelique Johnson, Suzanne Siminski, Pamina M. Gorbach, and Marianna K. Baum. 2022. "Stress Increases the Association between Cigarette Smoking and Mental Disorders, as Measured by the COVID-19-Related Worry Scale, in the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort during the Pandemic" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 8207. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138207

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