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Review

Viral Eco-Genomic Tools: Development and Implementation for Aquatic Biomonitoring

1
Pharmacology Department and Health Research Unit, Medical College, Jouf University, Skaka 11564, Saudi Arabia
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Water Pollution Department, Virology Laboratory, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
3
Surgery Department, Medical College, Jouf University, Sakaka 11564, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka 11564, Saudi Arabia
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German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
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Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137707
Received: 21 May 2022 / Revised: 21 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
Enteric viruses (EVs) occurrence within aquatic environments varies and leads to significant risk on public health of humans, animals, and diversity of aquatic taxa. Early and efficacious recognition of cultivable and fastidious EVs in aquatic systems are important to ensure the sanitary level of aquatic water and implement required treatment strategies. Herein, we provided a comprehensive overview of the conventional and up-to-date eco-genomic tools for aquatic biomonitoring of EVs, aiming to develop better water pollution monitoring tools. In combination with bioinformatics techniques, genetic tools including cloning sequencing analysis, DNA microarray, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and metagenomic sequencing technologies are implemented to make informed decisions about the global burden of waterborne EVs-associated diseases. The data presented in this review are helpful to recommend that: (1) Each viral pollution detection method has its own merits and demerits; therefore, it would be advantageous for viral pollution evaluation to be integrated as a complementary platform. (2) The total viral genome pool extracted from aquatic environmental samples is a real reflection of pollution status of the aquatic eco-systems; therefore, it is recommended to conduct regular sampling through the year to establish an updated monitoring system for EVs, and quantify viral peak concentrations, viral typing, and genotyping. (3) Despite that conventional detection methods are cheaper, it is highly recommended to implement molecular-based technologies to complement aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring due to numerous advantages including high-throughput capability. (4) Continuous implementation of the eco-genetic detection tools for monitoring the EVs in aquatic ecosystems is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteric viruses; aquatic biomonitoring; eco-genomic tools; pollutants enteric viruses; aquatic biomonitoring; eco-genomic tools; pollutants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mostafa-Hedeab, G.; Allayeh, A.K.; Elhady, H.A.; Eledrdery, A.Y.; Mraheil, M.A.; Mostafa, A. Viral Eco-Genomic Tools: Development and Implementation for Aquatic Biomonitoring. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 7707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137707

AMA Style

Mostafa-Hedeab G, Allayeh AK, Elhady HA, Eledrdery AY, Mraheil MA, Mostafa A. Viral Eco-Genomic Tools: Development and Implementation for Aquatic Biomonitoring. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):7707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mostafa-Hedeab, Gomaa, Abdou K. Allayeh, Hany A. Elhady, Abozer Y. Eledrdery, Mobarak A. Mraheil, and Ahmed Mostafa. 2022. "Viral Eco-Genomic Tools: Development and Implementation for Aquatic Biomonitoring" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 7707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137707

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