Next Article in Journal
Academic Performance and the Link with Depressive Symptoms among Rural Han and Minority Chinese Adolescents
Previous Article in Journal
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Adolescence as a Critical Lifecourse Period to Break the Transgenerational Cycle of NCDs—A Narrative Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Types of Breathing on Static Balance Ability in Healthy Adults
 
 
Article

The Effects of Meditation with Stabilization Exercise in Marine Region on Pain, Tactile Sense, Muscle Characteristics and Strength, Balance, Quality of Life, and Depression in Female Family Caregivers of People with Severe Physical Disabilities: A Randomized Single-Blinded Controlled Pilot Study

by 1,†, 1,†, 1,2,* and 3,*
1
Department of Health Science, Gachon University Graduate School, Incheon 21936, Korea
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea
3
Department of Psychiatry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work as co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106025
Received: 7 April 2022 / Revised: 14 May 2022 / Accepted: 14 May 2022 / Published: 16 May 2022
Female caregivers of people with disabilities are burdened physically and mentally. To improve these symptoms, an intervention that is easy to apply and has fewer side effects, such as natural healing, has been proposed, but the effect of healing using marine resources is unclear until now. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of meditation accompanied with stabilization exercise in the marine region on the improvement of pain, tactile sense, muscle characteristics, muscle strength, balance, quality of life, and depression in female caregivers of people with severe physical disabilities. Twenty-four female family caregivers were recruited and were randomly assigned to the marine therapy group (MTG, n = 12) and the control group (CG, n = 12). Both groups performed the same meditation (35 min) and stabilization exercise (25 min) twice a day for 3 nights and 4 days per session (total 8 sessions). The MTG performed these in the marine region, whereas the CG performed the interventions in the urban region. Pain (pain intensity and pain pressure threshold), tactile sense (tactile spatial acuity), muscle characteristics (stiffness, elasticity), muscle strength (hand and pinch grip strength), balance, quality of life, and depression were measured before and after the intervention and 4 weeks after the intervention. Both groups showed significant improvements in pain intensity (resting pain: f(2) = 72.719, p < 0.001; movement pain: f(2) = 24.952, p < 0.001), muscle strength (right pinch grip: f(2) = 15.265, p < 0.001), and depression (f(2) = 13.312, p < 0.001), while tactile spatial acuity (TSA) (upper part: f(2) = 14.460, p < 0.001; lower part: f(2) = 7.672, p = 0.002), dynamic balance (f(2) = 4.196, p = 0.024), and quality of life (overall quality of life & general health: f(2) = 5.443, p = 0.009; physical health: f(2) = 13.991, p < 0.001; psychological: f(2) = 9.946, p < 0.001; environmental: f(2) = 20.004, p < 0.001; total: f(2) = 11.958, p < 0.001) were significantly improved only in MTG. There was no significant change in pain pressure threshold (upper trapezius (UT): f(2) = 0.765, p = 0.473; levator scapula (LS): f(2) = 0.213, p = 0.809; splenius capitis (SC): f(2) = 0.186, p = 0.831) and muscle characteristics (UT stiffness: f(2) = 1.486, p = 0.241; UT elasticity: f(2) = 0.358, p = 0.702; LS stiffness: f(2) = 2.440, p = 0.102; LS elasticity: f(2) = 0.544, p = 0.585) in both groups. In comparison between groups, the MTG showed a significant difference in sensory function compared to the CG (resting pain: f(2) = 10.487, p = 0.005; lower part: f(2) = 5.341, p = 0.034 in TSA). Our findings suggest that meditation combined with stabilization exercise improved pain, muscle strength, and depression of female caregivers. In particular, greater benefits on tactile sense, balance, and quality of life were found in performing these in the marine region compared to the urban region. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine therapy; meditation; stabilization exercise; caregivers; mental health; physical health marine therapy; meditation; stabilization exercise; caregivers; mental health; physical health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, H.-J.; Kim, S.-H.; Cho, H.-Y.; Lee, J.-H. The Effects of Meditation with Stabilization Exercise in Marine Region on Pain, Tactile Sense, Muscle Characteristics and Strength, Balance, Quality of Life, and Depression in Female Family Caregivers of People with Severe Physical Disabilities: A Randomized Single-Blinded Controlled Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106025

AMA Style

Shin H-J, Kim S-H, Cho H-Y, Lee J-H. The Effects of Meditation with Stabilization Exercise in Marine Region on Pain, Tactile Sense, Muscle Characteristics and Strength, Balance, Quality of Life, and Depression in Female Family Caregivers of People with Severe Physical Disabilities: A Randomized Single-Blinded Controlled Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):6025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shin, Ho-Jin, Sung-Hyeon Kim, Hwi-Young Cho, and Jae-Hon Lee. 2022. "The Effects of Meditation with Stabilization Exercise in Marine Region on Pain, Tactile Sense, Muscle Characteristics and Strength, Balance, Quality of Life, and Depression in Female Family Caregivers of People with Severe Physical Disabilities: A Randomized Single-Blinded Controlled Pilot Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 6025. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106025

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop