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Review

One Health Approach to Tick and Tick-Borne Disease Surveillance in the United Kingdom

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Vector-Borne Diseases, Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Woodham Lane, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
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Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology, UK Health Security Agency, Porton Down SP4 0JG, UK
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International Development Team, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Woodham Lane, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105833
Received: 19 April 2022 / Revised: 6 May 2022 / Accepted: 7 May 2022 / Published: 11 May 2022
Where ticks are found, tick-borne diseases can present a threat to human and animal health. The aetiology of many of these important diseases, including Lyme disease, bovine babesiosis, tick-borne fever and louping ill, have been known for decades whilst others have only recently been documented in the United Kingdom (UK). Further threats such as the importation of exotic ticks through human activity or bird migration, combined with changes to either the habitat or climate could increase the risk of tick-borne disease persistence and transmission. Prevention of tick-borne diseases for the human population and animals (both livestock and companion) is dependent on a thorough understanding of where and when pathogen transmission occurs. This information can only be gained through surveillance that seeks to identify where tick populations are distributed, which pathogens are present within those populations, and the periods of the year when ticks are active. To achieve this, a variety of approaches can be applied to enhance knowledge utilising a diverse range of stakeholders (public health professionals and veterinarians through to citizen scientists). Without this information, the application of mitigation strategies to reduce pathogen transmission and impact is compromised and the ability to monitor the effects of climate change or landscape modification on the risk of tick-borne disease is more challenging. However, as with many public and animal health interventions, there needs to be a cost-benefit assessment on the most appropriate intervention applied. This review will assess the challenges of tick-borne diseases in the UK and argue for a cross-disciplinary approach to their surveillance and control. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick; surveillance; pathogens; citizen science; animal health tick; surveillance; pathogens; citizen science; animal health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnson, N.; Phipps, L.P.; Hansford, K.M.; Folly, A.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Medlock, J.M.; Mansfield, K.L. One Health Approach to Tick and Tick-Borne Disease Surveillance in the United Kingdom. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105833

AMA Style

Johnson N, Phipps LP, Hansford KM, Folly AJ, Fooks AR, Medlock JM, Mansfield KL. One Health Approach to Tick and Tick-Borne Disease Surveillance in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):5833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105833

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johnson, Nicholas, Lawrence P. Phipps, Kayleigh M. Hansford, Arran J. Folly, Anthony R. Fooks, Jolyon M. Medlock, and Karen L. Mansfield. 2022. "One Health Approach to Tick and Tick-Borne Disease Surveillance in the United Kingdom" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 5833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105833

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