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Investigating Potential Dose–Response Relationships between Vitamin D Status and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in Middle- to Older-Aged Adults in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study

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School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia
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Discipline of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Busselton Population and Medical Research Institute, Busselton 6280, Australia
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PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Perth 6009, Australia
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PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth 6150, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010450
Received: 9 November 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 27 December 2021 / Published: 31 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Aging)
Low vitamin D status has been linked to adverse cognitive outcomes in older adults. However, relationships at higher levels remain uncertain. We aimed to clarify patterns of association between vitamin D status and cognitive performance, using flexible regression methods, in 4872 middle- to older-aged adults (2678 females) from the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. Cross-sectional associations of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and performance in cognitive domains were modelled using linear regression and restricted cubic splines, controlling for demographic, lifestyle, and health factors. Mean ± SD serum 25OHD levels were 78 ± 24 nM/L for women and 85 ± 25 nM/L for men. Increasing levels in women were associated with better global cognition (linear trend, p = 0.023) and attention accuracy (continuity of attention), with improvement in the latter plateauing around levels of 80 nM/L (nonlinear trend, p = 0.035). In men, increasing levels of serum 25OHD were associated with better attention accuracy (linear trend, p = 0.022), but poorer semantic verbal fluency (linear trend, p = 0.025) and global cognition (nonlinear trend, p = 0.015). We identified patterns of association between serum 25OHD levels and cognitive performance that may reflect early dose–response relationships, particularly in women. Longitudinal analyses extending through to older ages may help to clarify the nature, strength, and temporality of these relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; cognitive performance; cognitive ageing; global cognition; domain-specific cognition vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; cognitive performance; cognitive ageing; global cognition; domain-specific cognition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harse, J.D.; Zhu, K.; Bucks, R.S.; Hunter, M.; Lim, E.M.; Cooke, B.R.; Walsh, J.P.; Murray, K. Investigating Potential Dose–Response Relationships between Vitamin D Status and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in Middle- to Older-Aged Adults in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010450

AMA Style

Harse JD, Zhu K, Bucks RS, Hunter M, Lim EM, Cooke BR, Walsh JP, Murray K. Investigating Potential Dose–Response Relationships between Vitamin D Status and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in Middle- to Older-Aged Adults in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(1):450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harse, Janis D., Kun Zhu, Romola S. Bucks, Michael Hunter, Ee M. Lim, Brian R. Cooke, John P. Walsh, and Kevin Murray. 2022. "Investigating Potential Dose–Response Relationships between Vitamin D Status and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in Middle- to Older-Aged Adults in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 1: 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010450

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