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Article

Global Variation in Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adolescents: The Role of Family and School-Level Factors

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Centre for Rural and Remote Health, James Cook University, Mount Isa, QLD 4825, Australia
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School of Demography, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
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Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3220, Australia
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Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
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Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia
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The Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course (The Life Course Centre), The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094984
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 4 May 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
While appropriate hand hygiene practices (HHP) are protective against infections, the paucity of evidence on global estimates and determinants of HHP in adolescents limits effective design and planning of intervention to improve HHP in young people. We examined the prevalence and correlates of HHP in adolescents. We used nationally representative data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2017) from 92 countries. HHP were categorized as “appropriate”, “inappropriate” and “lacking” based on the information about “hand washing before eating”, “hand washing after using the toilet”, and “hand washing with soap”. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the role of socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, school, and family-related variables in HHP. Among 354,422 adolescents (13–17 years), only 30.3% were found to practice appropriate hand hygiene. Multivariable models suggest that sedentary behavior (adjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.31–1.51)), and bullying victimization (ARRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10–1.30) promoted inappropriate HHP. In contrast, parental supervision (ARRR 0.55, 95% CI 0.50–0.59) and parental bonding (ARRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.75–0.87) were protective against inappropriate HHP. From a policy perspective, hand hygiene promotion policies and programs should focus on both school (bullying, exercise) and family-level factors (parental supervision and parental bonding) factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: hand hygiene; hand washing; global; adolescents; school children hand hygiene; hand washing; global; adolescents; school children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jatrana, S.; Hasan, M.M.; Mamun, A.A.; Fatima, Y. Global Variation in Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adolescents: The Role of Family and School-Level Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094984

AMA Style

Jatrana S, Hasan MM, Mamun AA, Fatima Y. Global Variation in Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adolescents: The Role of Family and School-Level Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094984

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jatrana, Santosh, Md. Mehedi Hasan, Abdullah A. Mamun, and Yaqoot Fatima. 2021. "Global Variation in Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adolescents: The Role of Family and School-Level Factors" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094984

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