Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Assessment of Cooling Center Preparedness across Twenty-Five U.S. Cities
Next Article in Special Issue
Particulate Matter Exposure across Latino Ethnicities
Previous Article in Journal
Nonresponders of Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP) Can Increase Their Exercise Capacity with Enhanced Physiotherapist Support
Previous Article in Special Issue
Framing Environmental Health Decision-Making: The Struggle over Cumulative Impacts Policy
Article

Social Inequities in Urban Heat and Greenspace: Analyzing Climate Justice in Delhi, India

1
National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC), Washington, DC 20005, USA
2
Department of Sociology & Anthropology, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094800
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Emerging Topics in Environmental Justice)
Climate change and rapid urbanization currently pose major challenges for equitable development in megacities of the Global South, such as Delhi, India. This study considers how urban social inequities are distributed in terms of burdens and benefits by quantifying exposure through an urban heat risk index (UHRI), and proximity to greenspace through the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), at the ward level in Delhi. Landsat derived remote sensing imagery for May and September 2011 is used in a sensitivity analysis of varying seasonal exposure. Multivariable models based on generalized estimating equations (GEEs) reveal significant statistical associations (p < 0.05) between UHRI/NDVI and several indicators of social vulnerability. For example, the proportions of children (β = 0.922, p = 0.024) and agricultural workers (β = 0.394, p = 0.016) are positively associated with the May UHRI, while the proportions of households with assets (β = −1.978, p = 0.017) and households with electricity (β = −0.605, p = 0.010) are negatively associated with the May UHRI. In contrast, the proportions of children (β = 0.001, p = 0.633) and agricultural workers (β = 0.002, p = 0.356) are not significantly associated with the May NDVI, while the proportions of households with assets (β = 0.013, p = 0.010) and those with electricity (β = 0.008, p = 0.006) are positively associated with the May NDVI. Our findings emphasize the need for future research and policies to consider how socially vulnerable groups are inequitably exposed to the impact of climate change-related urban heat without the mitigating effects of greenspace. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental justice; climate justice; urban studies; urban heat island; greenspace; remote sensing environmental justice; climate justice; urban studies; urban heat island; greenspace; remote sensing
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mitchell, B.C.; Chakraborty, J.; Basu, P. Social Inequities in Urban Heat and Greenspace: Analyzing Climate Justice in Delhi, India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094800

AMA Style

Mitchell BC, Chakraborty J, Basu P. Social Inequities in Urban Heat and Greenspace: Analyzing Climate Justice in Delhi, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mitchell, Bruce C., Jayajit Chakraborty, and Pratyusha Basu. 2021. "Social Inequities in Urban Heat and Greenspace: Analyzing Climate Justice in Delhi, India" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094800

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop