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Article

Intimate Partner Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain

1
Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
2
CIBER for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Sociology II, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
4
Interuniversity Institute of Social Development and Peace, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
5
Department of Health Psychology, Miguel Hernández University of Elche, 03202 Elche, Spain
6
National School of Public Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094698
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 26 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
Aims: To analyze the temporal and geographical distribution of different indicators for the evolution of intimate partner violence against women (IPV) before, during and after the COVID-19 induced lockdown between March and June 2020 in Spain. Methods: Descriptive ecological study based on numbers of 016-calls, policy reports, women killed, and protection orders (PO) issued due to IPV across Spain as a whole and by province (2015–2020). We calculated quarterly rates for each indicator. A cluster analysis was performed using 016-call rates and protection orders by province in the second quarters of 2019 and 2020. ANOVAs were calculated for clustering by province, unemployment rates by province, and the current IPV prevalence. Results: During the second quarter of 2020, the highest 016-call rate was recorded (12.19 per 10,000 women aged 15 or over). Policy report rates (16.62), POs (2.81), and fatalities (0.19 per 1,000,000 women aged 15 or over) decreased in the second quarter of 2020. In the third quarter, 016-calls decreased, and policy reports and POs increased. Four clusters were identified, and significant differences in unemployment rates between clusters were observed (F = 3.05, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown fostered a change in IPV-affected women’s help-seeking behavior. Differences between the volume of contacts made via 016-call and the policy reports generated provide evidence for the existence of barriers to IPV-service access during the lockdown and the period of remote working. More efforts are needed to reorganize services to cope with IPV in non-presential situations. The provinces with the highest 016-call and PO rates were also those with the highest rates of unemployment, a worrying result given the current socioeconomic crisis. View Full-Text
Keywords: intimate partner violence; SARS-CoV-2; formal help-seeking; Spain; femicide intimate partner violence; SARS-CoV-2; formal help-seeking; Spain; femicide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vives-Cases, C.; Parra-Casado, D.L.; Estévez, J.F.; Torrubiano-Domínguez, J.; Sanz-Barbero, B. Intimate Partner Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094698

AMA Style

Vives-Cases C, Parra-Casado DL, Estévez JF, Torrubiano-Domínguez J, Sanz-Barbero B. Intimate Partner Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094698

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vives-Cases, Carmen, Daniel L. Parra-Casado, Jesús F. Estévez, Jordi Torrubiano-Domínguez, and Belén Sanz-Barbero. 2021. "Intimate Partner Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094698

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