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E-Cigarette Flavors and Frequency of E-Cigarette Use among Adult Dual Users Who Attempt to Quit Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Longitudinal Findings from the PATH Study 2015/16–2016/17

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Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
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Behavioral Health & Health Policy Practice, Westat Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA
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Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
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National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
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Kelly Government Solutions, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
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Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084373
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 17 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
Potential mechanisms by which e-cigarette use may relate to combustible cigarette smoking cessation are not well-understood. We used U.S. nationally representative data to prospectively evaluate the relationship between e-cigarette flavor use and frequency of e-cigarette use among adult cigarette/e-cigarette dual users who attempted to quit smoking cigarettes. Analyses used Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data from adult dual users (2015/16) who attempted to quit smoking between 2015/16 and 2016/17 (Wave 3-Wave 4, n = 685, including those who did/did not quit by 2016/17). E-cigarette flavor use (usual/last flavor, past 30-day flavor; assessed in 2015/16) was categorized into Only tobacco; Only menthol/mint; Only non-tobacco, non-menthol/mint; and Any combination of tobacco, menthol/mint, other flavor(s). The key outcome, evaluated at follow-up in 2016/17, was frequent e-cigarette use, which was defined as use on 20+ of past 30 days. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between e-cigarette flavor use in 2015/16 and frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up in 2016/17. Dual users who attempted to quit smoking had greater odds of frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up when they used only non-tobacco, non-menthol/mint flavor than when they used only tobacco flavor as their regular/last e-cigarette flavor (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.4); findings were no longer significant when adjusted for factors including e-cigarette device type (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Past 30-day e-cigarette flavor use results were generally similar, although frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up was highest among those who used any combination of tobacco, menthol/mint, or other flavors. Findings indicate that e-cigarette flavor use among dual users who attempt to quit smoking may be related to e-cigarette use frequency overall, which may indicate a mechanism underlying findings for e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. Further longitudinal research may help to disentangle how e-cigarette characteristics uniquely impact e-cigarette use frequency and smoking cessation/sustained use. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarette flavors; cigarette quit attempt; use frequency; dual use; population; longitudinal; US nationally representative; adults e-cigarette flavors; cigarette quit attempt; use frequency; dual use; population; longitudinal; US nationally representative; adults
MDPI and ACS Style

Kasza, K.A.; Goniewicz, M.L.; Edwards, K.C.; Sawdey, M.D.; Silveira, M.L.; Gravely, S.; Zandberg, I.; Gardner, L.D.; Fong, G.T.; Hyland, A. E-Cigarette Flavors and Frequency of E-Cigarette Use among Adult Dual Users Who Attempt to Quit Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Longitudinal Findings from the PATH Study 2015/16–2016/17. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084373

AMA Style

Kasza KA, Goniewicz ML, Edwards KC, Sawdey MD, Silveira ML, Gravely S, Zandberg I, Gardner LD, Fong GT, Hyland A. E-Cigarette Flavors and Frequency of E-Cigarette Use among Adult Dual Users Who Attempt to Quit Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Longitudinal Findings from the PATH Study 2015/16–2016/17. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084373

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kasza, Karin A., Maciej L. Goniewicz, Kathryn C. Edwards, Michael D. Sawdey, Marushka L. Silveira, Shannon Gravely, Izabella Zandberg, Lisa D. Gardner, Geoffrey T. Fong, and Andrew Hyland. 2021. "E-Cigarette Flavors and Frequency of E-Cigarette Use among Adult Dual Users Who Attempt to Quit Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Longitudinal Findings from the PATH Study 2015/16–2016/17" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084373

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