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Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Relation to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia

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Monitoring, Evaluation and Research Department, Amref Health Africa in Ethiopia, P.O. Box 20855, Addis Ababa 1000, Ethiopia
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Freelance Consultant, San Jose, CA 95129, USA
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Amref Flying Doctors, Leiden, Schuttersveld 9, 2316 XG Leiden, The Netherlands
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Amref Health Africa in Ethiopia, P.O. Box 20855, Addis Ababa 1000, Ethiopia
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School of Nursing and Midwifery, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084281
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
The main purpose of the study was to deepen the understanding of gender and social inclusion in the context of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. An explorative qualitative study was conducted in three districts of the Oromia region using gender analysis frameworks. Twenty-one key informant interviews and nine focus group discussions were conducted. Findings showed 52% of households in the study area have basic service level water, 29% have basic service level sanitation, and 14% have basic service level hygiene. Women, girls, and people living with disability disproportionately experience poor access to quality WASH services. Women and girls participate in unequal domestic labor related to water management which often exposes them to discrimination and violence such as rape, abduction, and assault. Overall, women, girls, and other socially excluded groups are rarely consulted and engaged by local actors. This results in incongruent policy and political commitment which limits action at the grassroots level. Integrating gender equality and inclusion efforts into local governance agendas can help to increase access to and the quality of WASH services. These efforts must advocate for moving beyond gender parity to promote gender transformative approaches and inclusion to realize better WASH services for the communities they serve. View Full-Text
Keywords: women; schoolgirls; social inclusion; gender; WASH service women; schoolgirls; social inclusion; gender; WASH service
MDPI and ACS Style

Assefa, G.M.; Sherif, S.; Sluijs, J.; Kuijpers, M.; Chaka, T.; Solomon, A.; Hailu, Y.; Muluneh, M.D. Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Relation to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084281

AMA Style

Assefa GM, Sherif S, Sluijs J, Kuijpers M, Chaka T, Solomon A, Hailu Y, Muluneh MD. Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Relation to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084281

Chicago/Turabian Style

Assefa, Geteneh M., Samiha Sherif, Jose Sluijs, Maarten Kuijpers, Tamene Chaka, Arsema Solomon, Yeshitila Hailu, and Muluken D. Muluneh 2021. "Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Relation to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084281

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