Broccoli-Soybean-Mangrove Food Bar as an Emergency Food for Older People during Natural Disaster
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Population and Sample
2.3. Subject Recruitment
2.5. Food Bar Cooking Process
- Beat melted butter and white sugar with a mixer until smooth/homogenous. Put all the eggs and the mangrove, broccoli, and soybean flour into the dough.
- Stir the dough with the wish tool until blended and put the chocolate paste or other flavor into the dough. Then, stir homogenously with a wish or spatula tool.
- Prepare a square baking sheet with white parchment paper, then spread with butter until blended.
- Pour the dough into the pan and baked it in the oven for 30 min at a temperature of 180 °C. Continue baking again at 180 °C for 20 min to get a really dry quality food bar. One of the criteria for a food bar is that it must be completely dry for long-term storage as an emergency food .
2.6. Nutrition Intervention and Follow-Up
2.7. Data Analysis
3.1. Hedonic and Hedonic Quality Test
3.2. Sociodemography Characteristic and Nutritional Status, Independence Level, and Cognitive Profiles
3.3. Weight Change, Dietary Intakes, and Natural Disaster Preparedness Knowledge
3.3.1. Weight Changes and Dietary Intakes
3.3.2. Natural Disaster Preparedness Knowledge
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Level of Likeness||Broccoli Soybean Mangrove Food Bar|
|Attribute||Broccoli Soybean Mangrove Food Bar|
|It was very bad||4||14.3|
|It was a little nice||11||39.3|
|It was not very crunchy||2||7.1|
|It was a bit crunchy||12||42.9|
|It was crunchy||13||46.4|
|It was very crunchy||1||3.6|
|It was not very sweet||2||7.1|
|It was a little sweet||8||28.6|
|It was sweet||16||57.1|
|It was very sweet||2||7.1|
|It was not attractive||2||7.1|
|It was a bit attractive||5||17.9|
|It was attractive||20||71.4|
|It was very attractive||1||3.6|
|Indicator||n||%||Mean ± SD|
|Age (y.o)||70.4 ± 7.8|
|Final education level|
|Staying at home|
|Another family member||3||9.1|
|Body Mass Index/BMI (kg/m2)||19.6 ± 3.5|
|Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)||15||45.5|
|Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)||18||54.5|
|Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2)||0||0.0|
|Obesity (≥30.0 kg/m2)||0||0.0|
|MUAC (Mid Upper Arm Circumference) (cm)||22.5 ± 2.8|
|MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment)||21.2 ± 3.9|
|At risk malnourished||25||75.8|
|MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination)||21.1 ± 6.4|
|Probably cognitive impairment||11||33.3|
|BADL (Basic Activity Daily Living)||19.8 ± 0.9|
|IADL (Instrumental Activity Daily Living)||5.1 ± 2.3|
|Need help all the time||2||6.1|
|Need help now and then||3||9.1|
|In the First Week||In the Second Week|
|Energy Intake||Carbohydrate Intake||Protein Intake||Fat Intake|
|Body weight (baseline vs. week 1)||41.6||8.3||26.8–64.2||>0.01|
|Body weight (week 1 vs. week II)||41.7||8.2||26.9–64.2||<0.01|
|Body weight (baseline vs. weeks I)||41.8||8.2||26.7–64.4||<0.01|
|Nutrition and natural disaster|
preparedness knowledge of
older people (baseline-week II)
|Mean (SD) Macronutrient Intake||Mean Macronutrient Intakes as Percentage of RDA|
|Nutrient||Baseline||At the Second Week||Baseline||At the Second Week|
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Fatmah, F.; Utomo, S.W.; Lestari, F. Broccoli-Soybean-Mangrove Food Bar as an Emergency Food for Older People during Natural Disaster. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073686
Fatmah F, Utomo SW, Lestari F. Broccoli-Soybean-Mangrove Food Bar as an Emergency Food for Older People during Natural Disaster. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073686Chicago/Turabian Style
Fatmah, Fatmah, Suyud Warno Utomo, and Fatma Lestari. 2021. "Broccoli-Soybean-Mangrove Food Bar as an Emergency Food for Older People during Natural Disaster" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073686