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Article

A ‘Dilute and Shoot’ Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Multiclass Drug Analysis in Pre-Cut Dried Blood Spots

1
Chemical Agents Laboratory, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian Workers’ Compensation Authority (INAIL)—, Via Fontana Candida 1, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Rome La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063068
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 13 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
Drugs able to affect the auditory and nervous systems and consumed by workers to treatdifferent pathologies can represent a possible source of risk in the work environment. All the target compounds involved in the presented project show ototoxic and/or narcoleptic side effects and, for these reasons, occupational safety organizations have recognized them as potential causes of work injuries. A multiclass method for the analysis of 15 drugs among the most widespread worldwide (belonging to nine different classes including antihistamines, beta-blockers, antidepressants, Z-drugs and opioids), was developed and validated. This study describes a rapid, sensitive and effective method to analyse these substances in whole blood using tailored pre-cut dried blood spots. Detection was achieved with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer after an easy and simple ‘dilute and shoot’ solubilisation followed by an UPLC separation. All the issues linked to the use of the dried blood spots and whole blood, such as haematocrit variability, volumetric evaluation and sample carrier choice were carefully studied and managed during method development. From the validation study results it emerged that this approach can be deemed successful thanks to its few pg µL−1 LOQs, good linear intervals, absolute recoveries of no less than 75%, an almost negligible matrix effect and accuracy and precision in line with the European and American guidelines for validation. All the obtained goals have been specifically pursued in order to encourage method diffusion as a primary prevention intervention, even in small private workplaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep inducers; ototoxic drugs; pre-cut dried blood spots; whole blood analysis; dilute and shoot; UPLC-MS/MS; work safety sleep inducers; ototoxic drugs; pre-cut dried blood spots; whole blood analysis; dilute and shoot; UPLC-MS/MS; work safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mainero Rocca, L.; L’Episcopo, N.; Gordiani, A.; Vitali, M.; Staderini, A. A ‘Dilute and Shoot’ Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Multiclass Drug Analysis in Pre-Cut Dried Blood Spots. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3068. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063068

AMA Style

Mainero Rocca L, L’Episcopo N, Gordiani A, Vitali M, Staderini A. A ‘Dilute and Shoot’ Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Multiclass Drug Analysis in Pre-Cut Dried Blood Spots. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):3068. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063068

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mainero Rocca, Lucia, Nunziata L’Episcopo, Andrea Gordiani, Matteo Vitali, and Alessandro Staderini. 2021. "A ‘Dilute and Shoot’ Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Multiclass Drug Analysis in Pre-Cut Dried Blood Spots" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 3068. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063068

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