Impact of Covid-19 Lockdown on Availability of Drinking Water in the Arsenic-Affected Ganges River Basin
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Data Acquisition and Analyses
2.2.1. Ganges River Water Quality
2.2.2. Groundwater Arsenic and Water Quality
2.3. Assessment and Predictions
Risk Analysis and Random Forest Modeling
2.4. Statistical Analysis
2.4.1. Correlation and Multivariate Analyses for Pre-, During- and Post-Lockdown Periods
2.4.2. Panel Data Analysis
2.5. Assumptions and Limitations
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Present Scenario of Groundwater Quality with Respect to Arsenic Pollution in Ganges River Basin
3.1.1. Occurrence of Arsenic in Groundwater
3.1.2. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Concentration Using Machine Learning Based Approach
3.1.3. Population Exposed to Elevated Groundwater Arsenic Concentration
3.2. Observations and Evaluation of Ganges River Water Quality
Impact of Lockdown in Arsenic Affected Parts of Ganges River Basin
3.3. Impact of Natural and Human Factors on Lockdown River Water Quality
3.3.1. Rainfall and River Flow
3.3.2. Land Use and Land Cover
3.3.3. Human Influence in Changing River Water Quality
3.4. Groundwater-Sourced Drinking Water/Ganges River Sourced Drinking Water
- Efficient disposal of hazardous industrial and urban effluents like oils, anti-freeze, paint, solvents, cleaners, preservatives, and biomedical, which should not be directly introduced to the river water.
- Introduction of zero-discharge waste-water treatment facilities with integration of existing traditional water remediation techniques with emerging, locally adaptive technologies such as phytoremediation, bioremediation, riverbank filtration, etc.
- Enhanced sanitation and structured and planned septic systems need to be in place and measures need to be taken to restrict defecation outflow to the river water.
- Irrigational water preservation through regulated groundwater usage may be adapted through cropping of native food crops and reduction of water-guzzling cash-crops.
- Enhance natural groundwater infiltration and recharge through resurface with permeable land cover in urban brawls.
- Knowledge dissemination through participatory local training and utilization of ground knowledge for long-term sustainable rejuvenation.
- Introduction and implementation of a stringent regulatory framework for river water quantity and quality, replenishment and rejuvenation.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Faecal Coliform Most Probable Number (MPN/100 mL)||5000|
|Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)||1.6|
|Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (mg/L)||14.34|
|Total dissolved solids (TDS) (mg/L)||212.4|
|Sulphate (mg/L)||No Data|
|Phosphate (mg/L)||No Data|
|Nitrate (mg/L)||No Data|
|Faecal Coliform (MPON/100 mL)||180,000|
|Dependent Variable: FC **|
|Independent Variable||Fixed Effect|
|Sulphate in Garden Reach||0.05|
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Duttagupta, S.; Bhanja, S.N.; Dutta, A.; Sarkar, S.; Chakraborty, M.; Ghosh, A.; Mondal, D.; Mukherjee, A. Impact of Covid-19 Lockdown on Availability of Drinking Water in the Arsenic-Affected Ganges River Basin. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062832
Duttagupta S, Bhanja SN, Dutta A, Sarkar S, Chakraborty M, Ghosh A, Mondal D, Mukherjee A. Impact of Covid-19 Lockdown on Availability of Drinking Water in the Arsenic-Affected Ganges River Basin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062832Chicago/Turabian Style
Duttagupta, Srimanti, Soumendra N. Bhanja, Avishek Dutta, Soumyajit Sarkar, Madhumita Chakraborty, Ashok Ghosh, Debapriya Mondal, and Abhijit Mukherjee. 2021. "Impact of Covid-19 Lockdown on Availability of Drinking Water in the Arsenic-Affected Ganges River Basin" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 2832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062832