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Article

Mental Health among Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Comparison

1
School of Health Science, College of Education Health & Human Service, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
2
Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
3
Foundation for Global Community Health, Las Vegas, NV 89012, USA
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Discipline of Children’s Studies, School of Education, National University of Ireland, H91 Galway, Ireland
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Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06420, Turkey
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Department of Didactics and Educative Organization, University of Barcelona, 08015 Barcelona, Spain
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School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01310, Brazil
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School of Physical Education and Sports, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021, China
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Hubei Key Laboratory of Sport Training and Monitoring, Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan 430021, China
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Faculty of Educational Sciences, Goce Delcev University, 2000 Stip, North Macedonia
11
Association of Touristic Animators, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, SGT University, Gurugram 122505, India
13
Exercise and Sports Science, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Malaysia
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National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 178957, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally as first authors.
Members listed at end of report.
Academic Editor: Javier Alvarez-Galvez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052686
Received: 23 January 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 7 March 2021
Despite the global impact of COVID-19, studies comparing the effects of COVID-19 on population mental health across countries are sparse. This study aimed to compare anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown among adults from 11 countries and to examine their associations with country-level COVID-19 factors and personal COVID-19 exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (≥18 years) in 11 countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Ireland, North Macedonia, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United States). Mental health (anxiety, depression, resilient coping, hope) and other study data were collected between June–August 2020. Of the 13,263 participants, 62.8% were female and 51.7% were 18–34 years old. Participants living in Brazil had the highest anxiety and depression symptoms while participants living in Singapore had the lowest. Greater personal COVID-19 exposure was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, but country-level COVID-19 factors were not. Higher levels of hope were associated with reduced anxiety and depression; higher levels of resilient coping were associated with reduced anxiety but not depression. Substantial variations exist in anxiety and depression symptoms across countries during the COVID-19 lockdown, with personal COVID-19 exposure being a significant risk factor. Strategies that mitigate COVID-19 exposure and enhance hope and resilience may reduce anxiety and depression during global emergencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; anxiety; depression; multi-country; resilient coping; hope; adults COVID-19; mental health; anxiety; depression; multi-country; resilient coping; hope; adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, K.; Yang, J.; Chin, M.-K.; Sullivan, L.; Demirhan, G.; Violant-Holz, V.; Uvinha, R.R.; Dai, J.; Xu, X.; Popeska, B.; Mladenova, Z.; Khan, W.; Kuan, G.; Balasekaran, G.; Smith, G.A.; on behalf of Global Community Health–COVID-19 Collaborative Research Team. Mental Health among Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Comparison. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052686

AMA Style

Ding K, Yang J, Chin M-K, Sullivan L, Demirhan G, Violant-Holz V, Uvinha RR, Dai J, Xu X, Popeska B, Mladenova Z, Khan W, Kuan G, Balasekaran G, Smith GA, on behalf of Global Community Health–COVID-19 Collaborative Research Team. Mental Health among Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Comparison. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Kele, Jingzhen Yang, Ming-Kai Chin, Lindsay Sullivan, Giyasettin Demirhan, Veronica Violant-Holz, Ricardo R. Uvinha, Jianhui Dai, Xia Xu, Biljana Popeska, Zornitza Mladenova, Waheeda Khan, Garry Kuan, Govindasamy Balasekaran, Gary A. Smith, and on behalf of Global Community Health–COVID-19 Collaborative Research Team. 2021. "Mental Health among Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Comparison" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052686

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