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Open AccessArticle

Health Promoting Schools in Germany. Mapping the Implementation of Holistic Strategies to Tackle NCDs and Promote Health

1
Department of Nursing and Health Science, Fulda University of Applied Sciences, 36037 Fulda, Germany
2
Centre for Applied Health Science, Leuphana University Lueneburg, 21337 Lueneburg, Germany
3
Department of Applied Human Sciences, Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences, 39676 Stendal, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christiane Stock
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052623
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their underlying risk factors are seen as major public health problems that threaten health and welfare systems worldwide. The holistic and resource oriented Health Promoting School (HPS) approach can serve as an appropriate framework for the prevention and control of NCDs. The paper aimed to map the implementation of HPS activities in German schools and to examine associations with potential influencing factors. A series of cross-sectional online studies including five federal states and 5006 school principals (40.2% males, 50.8% females) from primary and secondary public schools was conducted from 2013 to 2018. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in two factors of HPS implementation (F1: concrete HPS action, F2: capacity building for HPS). Comparing both factors, a lower implementation level could be identified for HPS capacity building with lowest mean values found for regular teacher training and intersectoral collaboration. Multiple binary regression analyses revealed significant associations between low HPS implementation and male gender (OR: 1.36 to 1.42), younger age (OR: 1.47 to 1.90), secondary school (OR: 1.78 to 3.13) and federal state (Lower Saxony = OR: 1.27 to 1.45; Schleswig-Holstein = OR: 1.95 to 2.46). Moreover, low access to resources, decision-latitude and perceived educational benefits were independently associated with both factors of HPS implementation. Based on the results of this study, there is a need to support schools in their capacity building for health (e.g., regular teacher training, cooperation with local health services). Moreover, considering the core mission of schools, more evidence of the educational impact of health promotion and its translation into the language of education is needed for secondary schools in particular. View Full-Text
Keywords: health promoting school; implementation; non-communicable diseases; instrument development; capacity building; health and education health promoting school; implementation; non-communicable diseases; instrument development; capacity building; health and education
MDPI and ACS Style

Dadaczynski, K.; Hering, T. Health Promoting Schools in Germany. Mapping the Implementation of Holistic Strategies to Tackle NCDs and Promote Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2623. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052623

AMA Style

Dadaczynski K, Hering T. Health Promoting Schools in Germany. Mapping the Implementation of Holistic Strategies to Tackle NCDs and Promote Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2623. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052623

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dadaczynski, Kevin; Hering, Thomas. 2021. "Health Promoting Schools in Germany. Mapping the Implementation of Holistic Strategies to Tackle NCDs and Promote Health" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2623. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052623

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