The Role of Law Enforcement Officers/Police in Drug Prevention within Educational Settings—Study Protocol for the Development of a Guiding Document Based on Experts’ Opinions
1.1. Conceptual Framework
- individual factors: including age, education, income level, health, psychosocial problems. For example: students showing poor self-regulation, impaired control and impulsiveness are more likely to binge drink alcohol.
- friends and family relationships: which includes the closest social circle, such as family members, peers, teachers and other close relationships. For example: students who are associated with deviant peers are more likely to use marijuana.
- community: which is the settings in which social relationships occur, including schools, workplaces and neighborhoods. For example: living in neighborhoods with a long-term high rate crime is associated with higher risk for substance abuse.
- society and broad social factors: including health, economic, educational and social policies that contribute to economic and/or social inequalities and cultural norms .
1.2. Adapted from the UNODC/WHO/UNESCO
1.3. Context and Potentials for Law Enforcement in Schools
1.4. Current Role of Law Enforcement in Schools
- Safety experts and law enforcers: for example, handling calls from schools and coordinating the response of other police resources, addressing crime and disorder problems and drug activities occurring in or around the school; making arrests and issuing citations on campus; contributing to investigations; taking action against unauthorized persons on school property; responding to off-campus criminal acts that involves students; being a liaison between the school and the police and providing information to students and school personnel about law enforcement matters;
- Problem solvers and liaison to community resources: for example, crime prevention; taking initiative for community justice; being instrumental in changing the environment that can reduce crime in or around schools; supporting school policy development that address crime and their implementation process;
- As educators, for example, teaching about policing as a career, criminal investigation, alcohol and drug awareness, gang and stranger awareness and resistance, crime prevention, conflict resolution, restorative justice, babysitting safety, bicycling, pedestrian and motor vehicle safety). Therefore, these assignments are becoming increasingly popular and the SRO programs are being encouraged, through governmental support.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Scoping Review
- Designing the concept: setting the procedural modality that will govern the development of the guiding document.
- Targeting our key stakeholders: this will include identification and direct contact of the key stakeholders. The writing of the guiding document will be aligned with the needs of the policy-makers, law enforcements agencies and schools simultaneously.
- Designing and guiding document development: the planned duration of the guiding document’s development is over a period of 12 months (Table 1) . The development is spread across seven activities within the implementation period, including: (1) review of literature and guidelines, (2) identifying a list of international experts, (3) developing a draft of guiding document (for the best practice on the training and utility of law enforcement in schools) and to circulate them with the experts, (4) arranging an experts meeting in Vienna (or online, pending the situation of the Novel Coronavirus 2019 pandemic travel security situation), (5) preparing a second draft of the guiding document per the feedback of the experts, (6) circulating and collecting feedback on the second draft of the guiding document using a suggested set of characteristics for the guiding document (Table 2) and (7) last round of updating the guiding document and receiving the final feedback (Table 1).
2.2. The Scope of the Guiding Document and Steering Committee Criteria
2.3. Guiding Document Development and Committee Members Selection Process
2.4. Declaration of Conflict of Interests
3.1. Negative Effect
3.2. Positive Effect
3.3. Mixed Effect
3.4. Indefinite Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Month||Project Activities||Stated Objectives||Key Performance Indicators|
|1–3||Map literature and guidelines||Identify the existing science on effectiveness of interventions from law enforcement officers in the field of prevention of drug use in educational settings||Report on the analysis of existing literature developed|
|1–3||Identify list of experts||Establish a think-tank of experts to consult on guidelines to be produced||Contact list of experts developed|
|4–6||Develop a draft of guidelines to circulate to experts||Build the initial content of the guideline to establish discussion platform||Draft document produced|
|4–6||Arrange for a meeting in Vienna, Austria *||Ensure establishment of platform where key expert information and analysis is accounted||Meeting report with recommendations shared with experts|
|7–9||Draft 2 of the guidelines circulated||Avail guidelines strengthened by qualitative experiences shared by experts||Revised guidelines developed|
|10–12||Collecting the feedback of committee members and update the guidelines||Consolidate expert opinion around the guidelines developed||Feedback report consolidated and produced|
|10–12||Final approval of the guidelines||Develop peer reviewed guidelines on law enforcement implication in substance use prevention in educational setting||Guidelines draft circulated as CRP during CND 2021|
|1. Overview material||Structured abstract|
|2. Focus||The primary aim of the guidelines is on how to train and integrate the role of the law enforcement in schools|
|3. Goal||We expect to promote the health of the youth in schools, by preventing substance use through the utility of law enforcement in schools|
|4. Users of the guidelines||The intended users of the guidelines are law enforcement agencies operating in schools|
|5. Target population||Trainees: law enforcement agencies; Ultimate beneficiaries: youth in schools|
|6. Developer||The UNODC as the organizer, and committee of experts in the field (to be identified)|
|7. Funding source||Bureau of the United States International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs|
|8. Evidence collection||Literature search and experts feedback|
|9. Grading criteria||Method for grading recommendation strength and rating evidence quality (to be identified by the experts)|
|10. Evidence synthesis||The utility of the evidence to create recommendations (to be identified by the experts)|
|11. Preliminary draft||This is an early version of the guidelines that will be circulated and reviewed by the experts|
|12. Updated draft||This is the updated draft to be sent for final approval by the experts|
|13. Definitions||List of definitions of critical terms|
|14. Recommendations and rationale||The list of recommended actions and to link them to support the evidence|
|15. Benefits and harms||Potential benefits and risks associated with the list of recommendations|
|16. Algorithm(s)||Graphical description of the stages and decisions in the integration and training process of the law enforcement agency in schools|
|17. Implementation||Any anticipated barriers for the implementation process, including supplementary materials|
|Studies Data Direction (Total n = 17)||Reference|
|Negative or null effect (n = 11 studies)||1. Gottfredson et al., 2020 |
2. Javdani, 2019; Systematic review, n = 28 studies. 
3. Ryan et al., 2018 
4. Fisher et al., 2016; Systematic review and meta-analysis, n = 7 studies 
5. Schlosser et al., 2014 
6. Na et al., 2013 
7. Sloboda, 2009 
8. Pan and Bai, 2009. Systematic review, n = 20 studies 
9. West and O’Neal, 2004. Systematic review, n = 11 studies 
10. Lynam et al., 1999 
11. Gist, 1995 
|Positive effect (n = 1 study)||1. Hammond et al., 2008; Meta-analysis, n= 6069 adolescents included |
|Mixed effect (n = 4 studies)||1. Caputi and McLellan, 2017; Systematic review, n = 11 studies |
2. Theriot et al., 2016 
3. Bavarian et al., 2015 
4. Theriot et al., 2009 
|Indefinite conclusion (n = 1 study)||1. Petrosino et al., 2012; Systematic review, n = 11 studies) |
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El-Khatib, Z.; Herrera, C.; Campello, G.; Mattfeld, E.; Maalouf, W. The Role of Law Enforcement Officers/Police in Drug Prevention within Educational Settings—Study Protocol for the Development of a Guiding Document Based on Experts’ Opinions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052613
El-Khatib Z, Herrera C, Campello G, Mattfeld E, Maalouf W. The Role of Law Enforcement Officers/Police in Drug Prevention within Educational Settings—Study Protocol for the Development of a Guiding Document Based on Experts’ Opinions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052613Chicago/Turabian Style
El-Khatib, Ziad, Celina Herrera, Giovanna Campello, Elizabeth Mattfeld, and Wadih Maalouf. 2021. "The Role of Law Enforcement Officers/Police in Drug Prevention within Educational Settings—Study Protocol for the Development of a Guiding Document Based on Experts’ Opinions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052613