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Open AccessArticle

Triangular Trajectory of Sustainable Development: Panel Analysis of the OECD Countries

by 1 and 2,*
1
Department of Public Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju City 52828, Korea
2
Department of Social Welfare, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju City 54896, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kristie L. Ebi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052374
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
This study analyzes how the three pillars of sustainable development (economic growth, social justice, and environmental protection) have influenced each other for the past twenty-six years (from 1987 to 2013). The relationship between the triangular pillar of SD can be characterized by “ecological modernization”, “eco-socialism”, and the traditional debate between growth and distribution. This paper examined the correlation analysis of the nine representative variables in the three categories, adopting the cases of twenty-six OECD countries. In particular, the panel analysis (PCSE models) was conducted to identify the seven independent determinants affecting both response (dependent) variables and environmental factors (“CO2 emissions” and “renewable electricity output”). In short, during the entire period, the findings reveal that all economic and social variables did not have a positive impact on reducing CO2 emissions. However, the variables of “employment in industry” and “social expenditure” are effected by the increase of renewable electricity output. Consequently, highlighting the detailed findings different for each set period (1987–2013, 1987–2002, and 2003–2013), this study suggests the implications of the analysis result in the light of the theories of ecological modernization and eco-socialism. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable development; ecological modernization; eco-socialism; panel analysis; OECD countries sustainable development; ecological modernization; eco-socialism; panel analysis; OECD countries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huh, T.; Kim, Y.Y. Triangular Trajectory of Sustainable Development: Panel Analysis of the OECD Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052374

AMA Style

Huh T, Kim YY. Triangular Trajectory of Sustainable Development: Panel Analysis of the OECD Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huh, Taewook; Kim, Yun Y. 2021. "Triangular Trajectory of Sustainable Development: Panel Analysis of the OECD Countries" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052374

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