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Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Stress in Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

1
Pulmonary Department, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0450 Oslo, Norway
3
Department of Behavioral Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway
4
Haematology and Oncology, Østfold Hospital Trust Kalnes, 1714 Grålum, Norway
5
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, 0484 Oslo, Norway
6
Health Services Research Unit, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042079
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Prognosis, Outcomes and Long-Term Sequelae)
This population-based study assessed the prevalence and determinants of symptom-defined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a cohort of hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients about 1.5–6 months after their COVID-19 onset. The data were acquired from two mixed postal/web surveys in June–September 2020 from patients all aged ≥18 years with a positive polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) until 1 June 2020, comprising both hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects. The catchment areas of the two included hospitals covers about 17% of the population of Norway. In total, 211 hospitalized and 938 non-hospitalized subjects received invitation. The prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD was assessed using the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Determinants of symptom-defined PTSD and PTSD symptoms were analyzed using multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis. In total, 583 (51%) subjects responded at median 116 (range 41–200) days after COVID-19 onset. The prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD was 9.5% in hospitalized and 7.0% in non-hospitalized subjects (p = 0.80). Female sex, born outside of Norway, and dyspnea during COVID-19 were risk factors for persistent PTSD symptoms. In non-hospitalized subjects, previous depression and COVID-19 symptom load were also associated with persistent PTSD symptoms. In conclusion, COVID-19 symptom load, but not hospitalization, was associated with symptom-defined PTSD and PTSD symptom severity. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder; COVID-19; cohort study; outpatients; hospitalized; intensive care unit post-traumatic stress disorder; COVID-19; cohort study; outpatients; hospitalized; intensive care unit
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MDPI and ACS Style

Einvik, G.; Dammen, T.; Ghanima, W.; Heir, T.; Stavem, K. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Stress in Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2079. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042079

AMA Style

Einvik G, Dammen T, Ghanima W, Heir T, Stavem K. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Stress in Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2079. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Einvik, Gunnar, Toril Dammen, Waleed Ghanima, Trond Heir, and Knut Stavem. 2021. "Prevalence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Stress in Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2079. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042079

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