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Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Fatigue after COVID-19 in Non-Hospitalized Subjects: A Population-Based Study

1
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0450 Oslo, Norway
2
Health Services Research Unit, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
3
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
4
Department of Medicine, Østfold Hospital Trust, 1714 Grålum, Norway
5
Department of Research, Østfold Hospital Trust, 1714 Grålum, Norway
6
Fürst Medical Laboratory, 1051 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042030
Received: 27 December 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of fatigue in a population-based cohort of non-hospitalized subjects 1.5–6 months after COVID-19. It was a mixed postal/web survey of all non-hospitalized patients ≥18 years with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 until 1 June 2020 in a geographically defined area. In total, 938 subjects received a questionnaire including the Chalder fatigue scale (CFQ-11) and the energy/fatigue scale of the RAND-36 questionnaire. We estimated z scores for comparison with general population norms. Determinants were analyzed using multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis. In total, 458 subjects (49%) responded to the survey at median 117.5 days after COVID-19 onset, and 46% reported fatigue. The mean z scores of the CFQ-11 total was 0.70 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.82), CFQ-11 physical 0.66 (0.55 to 0.78), CFQ-11 mental 0.47 (0.35 to 0.59) and RAND-36 energy/fatigue −0.20 (−0.31 to −0.1); all CFQ-11 scores differed from those of the norm population (p < 0.001). Female sex, single/divorced/widowed, short time since symptom debut, high symptom load, and confusion during acute COVID-19 were associated with higher multivariable odds of fatigue. In conclusion, the burden of post-viral fatigue following COVID-19 was high, and higher than in a general norm population. Symptoms of fatigue were most prevalent among women, those having a high symptom load, or confusion during the acute phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; fatigue; post-infectious fatigue; prevalence; CFQ-11 COVID-19; fatigue; post-infectious fatigue; prevalence; CFQ-11
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stavem, K.; Ghanima, W.; Olsen, M.K.; Gilboe, H.M.; Einvik, G. Prevalence and Determinants of Fatigue after COVID-19 in Non-Hospitalized Subjects: A Population-Based Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042030

AMA Style

Stavem K, Ghanima W, Olsen MK, Gilboe HM, Einvik G. Prevalence and Determinants of Fatigue after COVID-19 in Non-Hospitalized Subjects: A Population-Based Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stavem, Knut, Waleed Ghanima, Magnus K. Olsen, Hanne M. Gilboe, and Gunnar Einvik. 2021. "Prevalence and Determinants of Fatigue after COVID-19 in Non-Hospitalized Subjects: A Population-Based Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042030

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