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Article

Stress and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk for Indigenous Populations throughout the Lifespan

1
Department of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
2
Psychology Department, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79902, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
4
Family & Community Medicine Department, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Monica Wendel and Gaberiel Jones Jr.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041821
Received: 3 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Equity as a Pathway to Health Equity)
Background: Indigenous people experience the greatest cardiometabolic disease disparity in the Unites States, yet high cardiometabolic disease risk factors do not fully explain the extent of the cardiometabolic disease disparity for Indigenous people. Stress, trauma, and racism occur at high rates within Indigenous communities and have not been well explored as significant contributors to cardiometabolic disease disparities despite emerging literature, and therefore will be described here. Methods: This descriptive study explores the relationship between cardiometabolic disease risks and Indigenous-specific stressors (e.g., early childhood stress and trauma, adulthood stress and trauma, and historical and intergenerational trauma) using current literature. Indigenous-specific protective factors against cardiometabolic disease are also reviewed. Results. Increasing research indicates that there is a relationship between Indigenous-specific stressful and traumatic life experiences and increased cardiometabolic disease risk. Mental health and psychophysiology play an important role in this relationship. Effective interventions to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk in Indigenous communities focus on ameliorating the negative effects of these stressors through the use of culturally specific health behaviors and activities. Conclusions: There is increasing evidence that cultural connection and enculturation are protective factors for cardiometabolic disease, and may be galvanized through Indigenous-led training, research, and policy change. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indigenous population; stress; cardiometabolic disease; historical trauma; adverse childhood experiences Indigenous population; stress; cardiometabolic disease; historical trauma; adverse childhood experiences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lewis, M.E.; Volpert-Esmond, H.I.; Deen, J.F.; Modde, E.; Warne, D. Stress and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk for Indigenous Populations throughout the Lifespan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1821. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041821

AMA Style

Lewis ME, Volpert-Esmond HI, Deen JF, Modde E, Warne D. Stress and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk for Indigenous Populations throughout the Lifespan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1821. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041821

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lewis, Melissa E., Hannah I. Volpert-Esmond, Jason F. Deen, Elizabeth Modde, and Donald Warne. 2021. "Stress and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk for Indigenous Populations throughout the Lifespan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1821. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041821

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