Reflection of Challenges and Opportunities within the COVID-19 Pandemic to Include Biological Hazards into DRR Planning
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Health System Resilience
- The capacity of the relevant health and non-health workers across the entire pathway of care should be strengthened, from screening, testing, diagnosis, treatment, recovery and rehabilitation ;
- Surveillance and information systems must be strengthened to ensure that data collected includes all populations and will enable the system to identify and protect groups facing vulnerability ;
- Public–private partnership models for health service provision should be explored and promoted to maximize functionality and service provision, especially when government systems are constrained .
3.2. Data Management
3.3. Residual Risk Management
3.4. Risk Communication
3.5. Digital Literacy
3.6. Knowledge Product Marketing
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Chan, E.Y.Y.; Shaw, R. Health and Disasters: Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management in Asia; Shaw, R., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2020; ISBN 9780323286657. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030; United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: Geneva, Switzerland, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Framework; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019; ISBN 9789241516181. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters; United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: Geneva, Switzerland, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Open-Ended Intergovernmental Expert Working Group on Indicators and Terminology Relating to Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland, 2016; Volume A/71/644. [Google Scholar]
- Shaw, R.; Chatterjee, R.; Dabral, A. Integrating Biological Hazards (Including Pandemics) into DRR Planning: Technical Advisory Document. unpublished. 2020. Available online: http://www.ccouc.ox.ac.uk/technical-advisory-document-integrating-biological-hazards-including-pandemics-into-drr-planning (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Cross-Sectoral and Multi-Risk Approach to Cascading Disasters; United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Ebrahim, S.H.; Rahman, N.M.M.; Imtiaz, R.; Gozzer, E.; Alqahtani, S.A.; Ahmed, Y.; Memish, Z.A. Forward planning for disaster-related mass gatherings amid COVID-19. Lancet Planet. Health 2020, 4, e379–e380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lucero-Prisno, D.E.; Bernardino, G.D.; Camua, A.A.R.; Lin, X.; Adebisi, Y.A. Philippines braces for the typhoon season amidst COVID-19. Lancet Reg. Health West. Pac. 2020, 1, 100003. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Singer, M.; Bulled, N.; Ostrach, B.; Mendenhall, E. Syndemics and the biosoical concepts of health. Lancet 2017, 389, 941–950. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction Asia-Pacific Partnership for Disaster Risk Reduction (APP-DRR) Forum. Available online: https://www.undrr.org/event/asia-pacific-partnership-disaster-risk-reduction-app-drr-forum-0 (accessed on 27 January 2021).
- World Health Organization. Mask Use in the Context of COVID-19; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Public Health England Guidance on Shielding and Protecting People Who are Clinically Extremely Vulnerable from COVID-19. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/guidance-on-shielding-and-protecting-extremely-vulnerable-persons-from-covid-19/guidance-on-shielding-and-protecting-extremely-vulnerable-persons-from-covid-19 (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Government of Hong Kong New Requirements to Reduce Gatherings. Available online: https://www.coronavirus.gov.hk/eng/reduce-gatherings.html (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Operating Schools during COVID-19: CDC’s Consideration. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools.html (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Government of Hong Kong Points to Note for Quarantine for Inbound Travellers. Available online: https://www.coronavirus.gov.hk/eng/inbound-travel.html (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Singapore Ministry of Health Updates on Border Measures and Community Surveillance Testing Operations. Available online: https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/updates-on-border-measures-and-community-surveillance-testing-operations (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Public Health England Coronavirus (COVID-19): Safer Travel Guidance for Passengers. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/coronavirus-covid-19-safer-travel-guidance-for-passengers (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Government of Japan National Action Plan for Pandemic Influenza and New Infectious Diseases. Available online: https://www.cas.go.jp/jp/seisaku/ful/keikaku/pdf/national%20action%20plan.pdf (accessed on 22 December 2020).
- Singapore Ministry of Health Pandemic Readiness and Response Plan for Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Diseases. Available online: https://www.moh.gov.sg/docs/librariesprovider5/diseases-updates/interim-pandemic-plan-public-ver-_april-2014.pdf (accessed on 22 December 2020).
- Gallagher, M.W.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Long, L.J.; Rogers, A.H.; Garey, L. The Impact of Covid-19 Experiences and Associated Stress on Anxiety, Depression, and Functional Impairment in American Adults. Cognit. Ther. Res. 2020, 44, 1043–1051. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Davido, B.; Seang, S.; Tubiana, R.; de Truchis, P. Post–COVID-19 chronic symptoms: A postinfectious entity? Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2020, 26, 1448–1449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dubois, C.; Wright, K.; Parker, M. Ethics in Research. In WHO Guidance on Research Methods for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020; pp. 185–199. [Google Scholar]
- Findlay, M.J.; Remolina, N. Regulating Personal Data Usage in COVID-19 Control Conditions. SSRN Electron. J. 2020, 1–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Health Organisation Ethics in Epidemics, Emergencies and Disasters: Research, Surveillance and Patient Care. 2015. Available online: https://www.who.int/ethics/publications/epidemics-emergencies-research/en/ (accessed on 22 December 2020).
- McNicholas, C.; Poydock, M. Who Are Essential Workers? Available online: https://www.epi.org/blog/who-are-essential-workers-a-comprehensive-look-at-their-wages-demographics-and-unionization-rates/ (accessed on 22 December 2020).
- Lancet, T. The Lancet The plight of essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet 2020, 395, 1587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chan, E.Y.Y.; Gobat, N.; Kim, J.H.; Newnham, E.A.; Huang, Z.; Hung, H.; Dubois, C.; Hung, K.K.C.; Wong, E.L.Y.; Wong, S.Y.S. Informal home care providers: The forgotten health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet 2020, 395, 1957–1959. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wenham, C.; Smith, J.; Morgan, R. COVID-19: The gendered impacts of the outbreak. Lancet 2020, 395, 846–848. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Karlsson, U.; Fraenkel, C.-J. COVID-19: Risks to healthcare workers and their families. Br. Med. J. 2020, 371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Yonally, E.; Tulloch, O.; Butler, N.; Gillespie, A. RCCE Strategies to Overcome Covid-19 Fatigue in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Northern Africa; Institute of Development Studies: Brighton, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- International Labour Organization. A Policy Framework for Tackling the Economic and Social Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis; International Labour Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Jurzyk, E.; Nair, M.M.; Pouokam, N.; Sedik, T.S.; Tan, A.; Yakadina, I.; Tan, A.; Yakadina, I. COVID-19 and Inequality in Asia: Breaking the Vicious Cycle; International Monetary Fund: Washington, DC, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Okan, O.; Bollweg, T.M.; Berens, E.M.; Hurrelmann, K.; Bauer, U.; Schaeffer, D. Coronavirus-related health literacy: A cross-sectional study in adults during the COVID-19 infodemic in Germany. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5503. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sørensen, K.; Pelikan, J.M.; Röthlin, F.; Ganahl, K.; Slonska, Z.; Doyle, G.; Fullam, J.; Kondilis, B.; Agrafiotis, D.; Uiters, E.; et al. Health literacy in Europe: Comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU). Eur. J. Public Health 2015, 25, 1053–1058. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- McCaffery, K.; Dodd, R.; Cvejic, E.; Ayre, J.; Batcup, C.; Isautier, J.; Copp, T.; Bonner, C.; Pickles, K.; Nickel, B.; et al. Health literacy and disparities in COVID-19–related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in Australia. Public Health Res. Pract. 2020, 30, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wolf, M.S.; Serper, M.; Opsasnick, L.; O’Conor, R.M.; Curtis, L.; Benavente, J.Y.; Wismer, G.; Batio, S.; Eifler, M.; Zheng, P.; et al. Awareness, Attitudes, and Actions Related to COVID-19 Among Adults with Chronic Conditions at the Onset of the U.S. Outbreak: A Cross-sectional Survey. Ann. Intern. Med. 2020, 173, 100–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- World Health Organization Digital Technology for COVID-19 Response. Available online: https://www.who.int/news/item/03-04-2020-digital-technology-for-covid-19-response (accessed on 21 December 2020).
- Munene, M.B.; Swartling, Å.G.; Thomalla, F. Adaptive governance as a catalyst for transforming the relationship between development and disaster risk through the Sendai Framework? Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 2018, 28, 653–663. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. UN Research Roadmap for the COVID-19 Recovery; United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Ika, L.A.; Söderlund, J.; Munro, L.T.; Landoni, P. Cross-learning between project management and international development: Analysis and research agenda. Int. J. Proj. Manag. 2020, 38, 548–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Issues||Opportunities to Expand into DRR||Challenges||Suggested Solution|
|Health systems resilience||• Strengthen health considerations within multi-sectoral national or international DRR action plans||• Weaknesses in current action plans that do not consider the entire disaster cycle or prepare for concurrent, cascading or interacting risks||• Develop multi-hazard, multi-sectoral and adaptive action plans for DRR|
|• Improve hazard-related health outcomes by revaluating the resilience and vigilance of the health system as a whole||• Weaknesses in current action plans that do not consider multi-sectoral impact or response|
• Weaknesses in current action plans that do not consider post-epidemic long-term physiological or psychological effects
|• Consider health systems-wide paradigm to care, beyond clinical care|
|• National bodies are creating unique, siloed national action plans that lack complementarity||• Reinforce awareness-building and continuing professional education as a key component in policy development|
|Data management||• Identify areas of improvement in existing data platforms (collection, storage, analysis, sharing) in terms of:||• Security considerations in terms of data storage and management||• Consider inclusivity and representation of vulnerable groups in building data management tools|
|• Ethical considerations for data use, monetization of data, and personal data protection||• Incorporate the latest technological advancement and adaptive capacities for piloting secure data collection and data management tools|
|• Unique opportunity to collect robust post-pandemic data across all populations, to be used in recovery assessment research or for future hazards||• Continuous education regarding systems development and updates|
|Residual risk management||• Define or redefine “essential” groups, including part-time workers, nonprofessionals (e.g., home care givers), and non-health sector workers||• There is no standard definition of “essential” workers or nonprofessional workers||• Develop policy and guidelines to protect essential workers and nonprofessional workers|
|• Research into health impact and health needs of a pandemic on essential workers and nonprofessional workers, in order to build evidence-based policy and guidelines||• Lacking recognition or political will to protect the health and wellbeing of these groups (e.g., material provision, information dissemination)||• Data and research in health impact and needs of essential workers and nonprofessional groups including needs in material resources, information gaps, or training opportunities|
|• Continuous education of stakeholders involved in policy update and development|
|Risk communication||• Review or strengthen top-down government approaches to early warning systems||• Limited evidence of barriers to inclusivity of populations or inclusivity of communication channels||• Develop inclusive platforms for information dissemination (e.g., used by the elderly, disabled individuals)|
|• Consider health literacy in disaster risk communication and decision-making frameworks||• Limited but growing political will in managing misinformation or in determining the reliability of the information||• Community dialog to review and research barriers of information access and understanding|
|• Consider demographic and health factors (e.g., old age, physical disabilities) in ability access to information||• Building awareness and appropriate policies for communities facing vulnerabilities and improving patterns of communication under complex circumstances|
|Digital literacy||• Use of novel technology to develop tools for DRR data management (e.g., information sharing, data collection, tracking)||• Complex access to digital tools for certain groups (e.g., elderly, remote/rural groups, low-income groups)||• Build community dialog to promote the use of digital tools and understand barriers to usage|
|• Use novel technology to improve health DRR (e.g., diagnostics, telemedicine)||• Pilot novel and innovative tools for telemedicine, robotic temperature monitoring, or automated dispensary|
|• Building awareness and appropriate policies for communities facing vulnerabilities and improving patterns of communication under complex circumstances|
|Knowledge product marketing||• Update Health-EDRM and DRR tools, in particular, to consider the multifaceted and adaptive nature of concurrent, cascading and interacting hazards||• Lack of political or institutional will for multi-sectoral planning||• Collect evidence and lessons learned for needs in addressing novel biological hazards|
|• Multi-sectoral participation in the development of updated tools and guidelines||• Develop adaptive tools and knowledge products|
|• Begin a multi-sectoral dialog for DRR|
|• Building awareness and identifying knowledge gaps within communities to encourage active research and policy development|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Chan, E.Y.Y.; Dubois, C.; Fong, A.H.Y.; Shaw, R.; Chatterjee, R.; Dabral, A.; Loyzaga, A.; Kim, Y.-k.; Hung, K.K.C.; Wong, C.S. Reflection of Challenges and Opportunities within the COVID-19 Pandemic to Include Biological Hazards into DRR Planning. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1614. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041614
Chan EYY, Dubois C, Fong AHY, Shaw R, Chatterjee R, Dabral A, Loyzaga A, Kim Y-k, Hung KKC, Wong CS. Reflection of Challenges and Opportunities within the COVID-19 Pandemic to Include Biological Hazards into DRR Planning. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1614. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041614Chicago/Turabian Style
Chan, Emily Ying Yang, Caroline Dubois, Ada Ho Yin Fong, Rajib Shaw, Ranit Chatterjee, Ambika Dabral, Antonia Loyzaga, Yong-kyun Kim, Kevin Kei Ching Hung, and Chi Shing Wong. 2021. "Reflection of Challenges and Opportunities within the COVID-19 Pandemic to Include Biological Hazards into DRR Planning" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1614. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041614