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Article

Bullying and Cyberbullying among Italian Adolescents: The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Violent Behaviours

1
Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IRPPS), 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041558
Received: 20 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
Background: The study of adolescents’ behaviours and attitudes is crucial to define interventions for the containment of deviance and social discomfort. New ways of social interaction are crystallising violent behaviours which are moving more than ever on a virtual sphere. Bullying and cyberbullying share a common behavioural matrix that has been outlined through specific environmental and individual characteristics. Methods: A survey carried out in Italy in 2019 on a statistical sample of 3273 students highlighted the influence of several social and individual variables on deviant phenomena. Risk and protective factors in relation to the probability of involvement in bullying and cyberbullying have been shown through a bivariate analysis and a binary logistic regression model. Results: The study shows that presence of stereotypes and social prejudices, tolerance to violence and high levels of self-esteem have resulted as the main risk factors. On the other hand, low levels of tolerance related to the consumption of alcohol and drugs, high levels of trust towards family and friends and being female have been identified as protective factors. Conclusions: This research confirms the validity of several theories on bullying and cyberbullying phenomena. Furthermore, it identifies specific risk and protective factors and their influence on deviant behaviours, with a focus on environmental characteristics which appear as the key field of work to enhance adolescents’ well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: bullying; cyberbullying; adolescents; social deviance; violent behaviours; psychosocial factors; social conditioning; stereotypes; self-esteem; survey bullying; cyberbullying; adolescents; social deviance; violent behaviours; psychosocial factors; social conditioning; stereotypes; self-esteem; survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tintori, A.; Ciancimino, G.; Giovanelli, G.; Cerbara, L. Bullying and Cyberbullying among Italian Adolescents: The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Violent Behaviours. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041558

AMA Style

Tintori A, Ciancimino G, Giovanelli G, Cerbara L. Bullying and Cyberbullying among Italian Adolescents: The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Violent Behaviours. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041558

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tintori, Antonio, Giulia Ciancimino, Giorgio Giovanelli, and Loredana Cerbara. 2021. "Bullying and Cyberbullying among Italian Adolescents: The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Violent Behaviours" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1558. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041558

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