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Article

Treatment, Persistent Symptoms, and Depression in People Infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh

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Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
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Youth Research Association, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Uttara, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
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Quest Bangladesh Biomedical Research Center, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Department of Psychiatry, and Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
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Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
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Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling, Wethersfield, CT 06519, USA
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Department of Neuroscience, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
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Vision and Eye Research Institute, School of Medicine, Anglia Ruskin University, Young Street, Cambridge CB1 2LZ, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xudong Huang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041453
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected people’s lives globally. While important research has been conducted, much remains to be known. In Bangladesh, initial treatment (self-administered, hospitalized), persistent COVID-19 symptoms (“long COVID-19”), and whether COVID-19 leads to changes in mental state, such as depressive symptoms, of people are not known. This study aimed to examine treatment, persistent symptoms, and depression in people who had been infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1002 individuals infected with COVID-19 (60% male; mean age = 34.7 ± 13.9; age range = 18–81 years), with data taken over a one-month period (11 September 2020 to 13 October 2020). A self-reported online questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, COVID-19 symptoms (during and beyond COVID-19), medication (over-the-counter or doctor-prescribed), and depression (assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)). Results: Twenty-four percent of participants self-medicated with over-the-counter medicine when they were first diagnosed with COVID-19. Self-medication was higher among female vs. male respondents (29.6% vs. 20.2%, respectively, p = 0.002). A minority (20%) reported that they experienced persistent COVID-like symptoms after recovering from COVID-19. The most reported persistent symptoms were diarrhea (12.7%) and fatigue (11.5%). Forty-eight percent of participants were categorized as having moderate to severe depression. Based on multivariate regression analysis, depression during COVID-19 was positively associated with lower family income, poor health status, sleep disturbance, lack of physical activity, hypertension, asthma/respiratory problems, fear of COVID-19 re-infection, and persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest a need for appropriate interventions for COVID-19 patients to promote physical and mental wellbeing. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; recovery; Bangladesh; sleep–wake disorders depression; COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; recovery; Bangladesh; sleep–wake disorders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.S.; Ferdous, M.Z.; Islam, U.S.; Mosaddek, A.S.M.; Potenza, M.N.; Pardhan, S. Treatment, Persistent Symptoms, and Depression in People Infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041453

AMA Style

Islam MS, Ferdous MZ, Islam US, Mosaddek ASM, Potenza MN, Pardhan S. Treatment, Persistent Symptoms, and Depression in People Infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Md. S., Most. Z. Ferdous, Ummay S. Islam, Abu S.M. Mosaddek, Marc N. Potenza, and Shahina Pardhan. 2021. "Treatment, Persistent Symptoms, and Depression in People Infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041453

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